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Zavadenko N. N., Petrukhin A. S., Suvorinova N. Yu., Uspenskaya T. Yu., Manelis N. G., Borisova T. Kh.
Learning problems in schoolchildren: Psychoneurological and neuropsychological study

The developmental disorders of higher cerebral functions are often found in children with behavioral and learning difficulties. Psycho-neurological and neuropsychological assessment of 537 primary public school pupils (300 boys, 237 girls) aged 7-10 years reveals definite learning and behavioral problems in 31,6 % of schoolchildren. Children suffering minimal cerebral dysfunction (MCD) lag in the development of some higher cerebral functions, e. g. praxis, gnosis, language, memory and attention and have difficulties in mastering writing, reading or arithmetic skills along with behavioral problems. The most common form of MCD is represented by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which is diagnosed in 7,6 cases. Both MCD and ADHD are more prevalent in boys than in girls.

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