Psychological science and education in L.G. Shchukina Psychological Institute
The article represents director's of Psychological Institute address to the participants
of Institute's 85th anniversary celebration. The main directions of scientific research
and principal accomplishments are outlined.
Two scientific schools in Russian psychologists' paternal house
The author in his address at anniversary session of Psychological Institute describes
early period of its functioning and substantiates the notion of two scientific schools'
forming - Chelpanov's and Vygotsky's.
Psychic development in cultural-historical theory of activity
Activity-based model of psychic development is critically analyzed and the means to solve
its problems are offered. The author's point of view is that in cultural-historical theory
of activity and in based on the latter developing education theory there is dual notion of
human being as of individuum and as of personality. Another problem is insufficiently
strict separation of "activity" and "behavior" notions and inadequate
studing of "activity subject" notion. The author considers the way of person's
understanding oneself in activity to be a moving power of development. Periodisation of
psychic development existing in activity theory is analyzed. The author argues that
qualitative change of activity system is to be periodisation criterion.
The study of psyche biological basis from neuropsychologic point of view
Neuropsychology's application to the study of biological basis of psychological processes
is discussed. A.R. Luria's concept of neuropsychological factors is set forth. The
principal levels of neuro-psychological factors' analysis are presented and the notion of
species-specific genetic mechanisms' and genotypic programs' reflection in these factors
is sub-stantiated. The perspectives of psychogenetic studies based on neuropsychology are
Educational programs providing personal development principles and methods of construction
The contents of "educational program" notion are described and principles and
methods of its construction as well as technology of realization in the framework of
personal-oriented pedagogics are shown. The differences between educational and learning
programs are illustrated. Educational program's realization in schools of various types
makes it possible to describe using criteria such a personal feature as educatedness and
to construct technology of its forming based on pupil's subject experience. Developing and
personal-oriented education are differentiated.
Students' extrinsic and intrinsic aspirations, parent and teacher perceptions as connected
to their psychic health
V.I. Chirkov, E.L. Deci
American and Russian students' psychic health, extrinsic and intrinsic aspirations and
parent and teacher perceptions are compared. It is found that the higher intrinsic
aspirations the better psychic health characteristics are not, on the contrary,
orientation on extrinsic ones leads to deterioration of psychic well-being. As to parent
and teacher perceptions the latter influence students' life values and the former do not.
Anticipatory image in the structure of schoolchildren's thinking
The analysis of anticipation problem from the positions of structural-dialectic approach
enables one to construct dialectic model of anticipatory image on the base of opposites:
possible - actual. Different kinds of anticipatory images specified by their construction
means: image-transformation, image-mediation, image-consolidation - are marked out. The
experiments show the rightfulness of anticipatory image definition as one of dialectic
Object orientation of thinking as the basis of semantic selectivity
Special features of sociocultural and individual factors' interaction in dominating role
of object-specific indications and connections in thinking are discussed. The working out
and application of object selectivity in semantic activity evaluation is described.
The heredity models in manual asymmetry formation
The factors' of genotype and environment role in manual asymmetry formation are analyzed.
Gene-tic models describing various possible mechanisms of leading hand heredity are
discussed. The most attention is paid to M.Annette's right-side displacement theory. The
criteria for genetic model adequately describing the type of leading hand heredity are
offered. It is noted that existing models do not take into consideration such
characteristics as lateral organization profile and all possible aspects of function
Ecological values in social consciousness
T. V. Ivanova
The results of experimental study of ecological values in every-day consciousness are
presented. There were 437 participants from different age and vocational groups. The
nature is assessed by young persons from bio-centrist point of view and from rationalist
one by adults. There are more cognitive elements in highly educated persons. Those with
technical education are more tolerant to new ecological orientation.
A.S. Pushkin: the pages of Russian publishings on psychology and psychiatry
The article is dedicated to 200th anniversary of A.S. Pushkin. The evolution of Russian
scientists' views on poet's psychic health is presented. The author underlines the
impossibility to solve the problem of norm and pathology if one is guided only by
psychological, psychiatric or ethical point of view.
Unknown pages of G.I. Chelpanov's works
T.D. Martsinkovskaya, M.G. Yaroshevsky
The authors describe the last period of G.I. Chelpanov's life and his scientific interests
and accomplishments in the context of contemporary social changes in Russia.
Diagnostics and treatment of depression in children and adolescents
The author reviews the findings of foreign researchers concerning diagnostics and
treatment of depression in children and adolescents.