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21th century: Psychology at the age of psychology

A.G. Asmolov


The article is dedicated to A.N. Leont'ev's memory and substantiates the view on non-classical psychology as a discipline which constructs social reality. It is shown that the science based on L.S. Vygotsky's, A.N. Leontiev's and A.R. Luria's ideas made it possible for education in Russia to pass from "knowledge, mastery, skill" paradigm to "variative developing sense education" one. It is underlined that further development of practical psychology will result in whole system of psychological knowledge reformulating.


Opposition to education and development as pedagogic method

A.N. Poddyakov


It is shown that the view on social interaction in education as being only supporting is inadequate. Social opposition to education and its role must be analyzed. Such an opposition is inevitable and sometimes necessary. Special attention is paid to its contemporary aspects. Assistance and opposition are considered as two interrelated types of social interaction differently changing the direction of development: the former means predictable direction and the latter - unpredictable one.

Specificity of opposition influence on learning and personal development makes it possible to construct new types of developing education.


Theoretical approaches to practical thinking diagnostics

M.K. Akimova, V.T. Kozlova, N.A. Ferens


Practical thinking is studied as general abilities' component not connected to special vocational activity. Bibliography on the subject is presented. Concrete approaches to diagnostics are offered.


Concerning mathematical problems and mathematical education goals

A.N. Krichevets


Intellectual activity modeling is considered in the framework of the theories of knowledge, of biologic evolution and of psychological development. It is shown that the development of mathematical problems' solution skills differs from such a mastering of techniques which can be presented as an algorithm. The development is based on studied matter but does not mean the matter mastering. Mathematics includes not only formal aspect but sense aspect too; the latter cannot be presented formally but is learned by the means of formal matter.


Specific characteristics of development in transitional periods (1-year crisis)

K.N. Polivanova


Clinical observation results of a child 11- 17 months old are presented. The situations of symptoms' manifestations, named by L.S. Vygotsky "crisis symptoms", are analyzed. Such a behavior is due to the trend to overcome forbidding as a result of child's new abilities. The hypothesis of emotional-affective component of action subjectivization is offered: child becomes a subject of own desires and drives. It is promoted by speech development. Meaningful vocalization enables a child to hold a desire. 1-year crisis brings specific subjectivity: "I am desirous".



Special features of preschoolers' personal development before and during 7-years-crisis

T.V. Ermolova, S.Yu. Meshcheryakova, N.I. Ganoshenko


The authors consider personality as a conglomeration of individual attitudes to object and social environment and to self. Attitude to self is leading; it reflects child's self-image which is a result of individual activity and of contacts with others. The changes in contents of nuclear and peripheral structures of self-image in late preschool age are connected to social determinants and mark the turning point of child's self-consciousness, entry into critical phase of development.

New formations of 7-years-crisis integrate the results of psychic development and determine its further direction.


Psychological characteristics of spatial cognition

I.Ya. Kaplunovich


The author analyses bibliographical data and his own experimental results. Classification of individual differences in spatial thinking is offered: 5 main substructures and 4 levels of development are marked out. The hypothesis of cyclical development of differentiation and integration processes is presented.


Modified techniques of early person's Recollections

E.N. Ispolatova, T.P. Nikolaeva


The authors present the results of their new method approbation. The method deals with early child-hood recollections analysis. Brief review of bibliography on the matter is given. The technique's application is illustrated by concrete psychotherapeutic cases.


Psychotherapeutic practice: Clients' myths

V.Yu. Menovshchikov


A client comes to psychotherapist with own "mythology", own integral intra-conception of suffering and corresponding means of deliverance from it. The author marks out seven basic myths: worldly, philosophical, religious, occult, medical, psychological and pseudo-scientific. Psychotherapist's tactics must take into account the type of client's myth.


The forming of schoolchildren's psychological culture

L.S. Kolmogorova


The notion of "psychological culture" and its components is discussed. The necessity of conditions for its forming in the framework of school education is substantiated. The principles of construction and main sections of "Knowledge of human being" course are outlined. The examples of psychological culture diagnostics in junior schoolchildren are given.


Self-regulation of person's activity when becoming unemployed

A.K. Osnitsky, T.S. Chuikova


The situation of becoming unemployed usually is felt as critical. In order to help unemployed it is desirable to examine their resources and possibilities of self-regulation of their activity and mastering of active-subjective position. These characteristics differentiate the clients of employment service who succeed and don't succeed. Self-regulation analysis made it possible to mark out three kinds of strategy: active search for work, compensatory type, passive waiting. The principles of regulation-oriented training for unemployed are presented.


The development of attachment theory

(after P. Crittenden)

E.O. Smirnova, R. Radeva


The review of P. Crittenden's works on attachment theory is presented. Her approach integrates theories of learning, information processing and attachment and spreads them on different ages. The types of attachment and the ways of their development are described.