Developing education: Theoretical basis of preschool and junior school stages continuity
The means to achieve preschool and junior school stages continuity in developing education are analysed. Genetic correlation of preschooler’s imagination and junior schoolchild’s theoretical thinking is considered to be basic psychological starting point of such a continuity. The principles of necessary for preschoolers’ development conditions planning are discussed in detail.
Zone’s of proximal development cognitive and affective components in mentally retarded children
The hypothesis on the necessity of two L.S.Vygotsky’s important notions: of the unity of intellect and affect and of zone of proximal development amalgamation is presented. Actual and possible levels of understanding of short stories in normal and mentally retarded children were used as an experimental model. Two-dimension scale for understanding level evaluation in 6-year-olds was worked out. 5-score scale of answer evaluation and 3 ways of story’s presentation (including combination of personal and rational contents) played the role of measures. The results of experiment show that cognitive and affective components of actual and possible levels of understanding can be used as diagnostic tool for cognitive development in mentally retarded children prediction.
The author describes Art-Express formalized method for psychological evaluation of children by their drawings analysis. Children-victims’ of Tchernobyl disaster pictures show some psychological disturbances; it is necessary to take specific measures for correction.
The notion of language competence is analysed, the problems of its development in schoolchildren and the approaches to the solving of these problems in the framework of padegogical psychology are discussed. Language competence is considered to be psychological system, developing by the changes in the correlation between its basic components — language experience and language knowledge provided by school education.
Tolerance of stress factors in teachers
A.A. Rean, A.A. Baranov
The results of theoretical and empirical study of tolerance to stress in teachers on different professional levels are presented. Personality mechanisms in highly qualified teachers are of constructive nature and promote professional development and selfrealization (true adaptation). Low qualification level teachers employ situative means for stress overcoming (authority delegation, keeping off difficult situations, etc.), which hinder their professional and personal development (pseudo-adaptation). There is a correlation between the tolerance of stress and professional motivation structure and locus of control in teachers on different professional levels.
Child — parent problems demonstration by Rene Jile film-test
Original method of Rene Jile film-test usage is described. It enables the researcher to evaluate parents’ understanding of child’s position, self-attitude, views on peers and on adults. The results of discribed method implementation can be used in correction of child — parent problems.
Theoretical constructs and psychological reality in motivation indices by Edwards’ questionnaire
The problems of motivation are discussed. Basic principles of Edwards’ EPPS are considered as well as quantitative indexation of motivation tendencies and personality motivation profile, and the possibilities to reorient psychological reality construed by a psychologist employing EPPS.
The author argues that there is correlation between temperamental characteristics and special features of semantic space. Extraversy, social and objective temperamental activity are connected to using in categorization the evaluations characterized by larger activity, energy and strength. Neuroticism is connected to a trend in object evaluation, according to which the objects are considered to be passive, week, unordered and negative. Higher tempo in object activity is connected to positive and active evaluation of the objects, and higher tempo in social sphere is connected to more certain opinions.
A. Nguyen-Xuan, J. Shao
Modification of classic task of weight seriation — one of inaccurate scales — was studied. It was shown that difficulty of two similar problems solving depends on the number of deductions necessary for data processing. The task of “inaccurate scales” can be used as cognitive development test.
Psychologically substantiated process of educative guidance for children artistic creative work can be built on the basis of L.S.Vygotsky’s theoretical views on psychology of art and development of imagination and creativeness. It enables one to purposefully influence child’s general and artistic development.
The author describes, how L.S.Vygotsky’s work is studied in Western universities and underlines specificity of its use in education.
A person of unusual fate
The author describes life and principal works of D.A.Oshanin in connection to his 90th anniversary.
The presence of subjective contour optical illusions and their characteristics are argued to be the manifestation of nonverbal intellectual abilities correlated to cognitive development level. Experimental data supporting author’s views are presented.
Psychology of social situations
The review of foreign publications on different determinations of “social situation” term and situative factors’ influence on behavior is presented.