Âîïðîñû ïñèõîëîãèè






Âû íàõîäèòåñü íà ñàéòå æóðíàëà "Âîïðîñû ïñèõîëîãèè" â ïÿòèëåòíåì ðåñóðñå (1995-1999 ãã.).  Çàãëàâíàÿ ñòðàíèöà ðåñóðñà... 


To the 40th anniversary of «Voprosy psychologii»

Shchedrina E.V.

The chief editor of «Voprosy psychologii» describes the history and perspectives of the journal.

Generalization of higher education contents as a factor of its development

B.B. Kossov

Personal-developing higher education is considered as one of four strategies of humanization. It is characterized by the influ­ence of high level generalization. The influ­ence of generalization factor on all the ele­ments of the triad — practice, science and education — is shown. General principles of personal-developing higher education and components of its realization are for­mulated.

Meaning and symbol in projective picture

T.V. Snegireva

Following F.E. Vasilyuk, the author con­siders the starting point for analysis of the structure of symbols to be the psycho-semiotic model of consciousness image. A pro­jective picture «My family» symvolics was used as experimental data. The specificity of unconscious display of every basic notion in image theoretic model — object content, sign, meaning and personal sense — is discussed. The author places special emphasis on the sense component: it manifests itself spontaneuosly through object images and meanings of the picture. In addition, the symbolic image in its end­less sense perspective possesses not only individual but timeless supra-individual sense, which can be understood as a mani­festation of spiritual reality.

Characteristics of interpersonal relations in specialized boarding schools

M.Yu. Kondrat'ev

Interpersonal relations among inmates of boarding schools for gifted adolescents are analysed. External, institutional psycholog­ical closedness results in internal psycho­logical closedness. Educative-professional activity becomes very important for the stu­dents. Both these factors lead to the forma­tion of strict intragroup status differentia­tion and to the development of «castes» that are defined in opposition to each other. A teacher in such an institution often inter­acts with adolescents according to already existing system of interrelations and so in­directly promotes informal structure of such associations, contradicting educative purpo­ses of boarding school.

The exercises for reading habit forming in Junior schoolchildren

E.V. Zaika

More than twenty exercises and entertai­ning plays are described. They are aimed at forming skills necessary for fluent, correct and meaningful reading. The exercises are recommended for schoolchildren experien­cing chronic reading difficulties.

Walter Cannon, Ivan Pavlov and the problem of emotional behavior

M.G. Yaroshevsky

W. Cannon's theory of emotions denied James-Lange hypothesis of body — con­sciousness dualism. The latter was critisized by L.S. Vygotsky as well as Scheler-Diltey intentional theory. There was close perso­nal and scientific bondage between W. Can­non and I. Pavlov. W. Cannon included the concept of conditioned reflex in Ms theory of emotional behavior. I. Pavlov included subcortex functions, corresponding to Cannon's «main emotions», into the scheme of higher nervous activity. W. Cannon and I. Pavlov both considered the behavior con­cept to be different from psychology of con­sciousness and from neurophysiology.

The works of pioneering psychoanalyst S. Spielrein

A. van Waning

The works of Russian psychoanalyst Sabina Spielrein (1885—1942) are revie­wed. S. Spielrein played a special and in­triguing role in the development of psycho­analytic thinking in the beginning of the century. After having been intimately in­volved with Jung in personal and professio­nal ways, later on in her life she adhered more to the Freudian psychoanalytic appro­ach. She kept corresponding with both men for many years. Her own articles, 32 in number, have gotten little attention so far, except for «Destruction as a cause of co­ming into being» in which she anticipated the «death wish» concept. The themes of love, destruction and creativity are woven into her work and life. The diversity of partners she chose to work with — next to Jung and Freud also with Piaget — and her linguistic and neuropsychological interests show her to be a versatile and self-willed pioneer. It is concluded that so far S. Spiel­rein has not received the recognition she de­serves.

Clinical psychology: the works of Russian psychiatrists of late XIX century

I.E. Sirotkina

Before the victory of Vundt's views on the psychological experiment the latter was considered to be a natural phenomenon — mental disease or psychological changes due to hypnosis. Clinical psychology pro­duced the first model of experimentation. The author describes Russian psychiatrists' contribution in experimental-psychological studies.

For the memory of Teacher

(to the 100th anniversary of D.G. El'kin)

 A.K. Bolotova

The author presents her memories on re­markable Russian psychologist D.G. EF-kin and his works.

The role of motivation and stimulation in integral individuality structures formation

V.V. Bclous, T.V. Kopan'

The roles of achievement motivation and the social world in the formation of integral individuality structures is shown. When so­cial characteristics are equal, success achie­vement motives calls forth different sides of integral individuality. When success achie­vement motives are equal and social charac­teristics are different (urban environment versus rural one), identical integral indivi­duality structures are demonstrated.

Temperament at an early age: Parental estimates and family characteristics

E.R. Slobodskaya

Stable behavior style in day nursery child­ren and in their parents is examined by means of questionnaires. The multi-dimen­sional structure of temperament is demon­strated, maternal and paternal estimates are compared and social-economical position of a family and its influence on children's temperament evaluated. It is shown that temperament in young children can be con­ditioned by psycho-physiological characte­ristics such as inhibition system. Environ­mental factors play their role in tempera­ment formation too. Temperament is an im­portant parameter in the formation of life style.

The method to evaluate individual psychological prerequisites for driver's activity

V.-M. Heikkila

The author reviews different tests of dri­ver's competence and discusses its connec­tion to personal traits. The results of a study in experienced and unexperienced drivers arc presented.