To the 40th anniversary of «Voprosy psychologii»
The chief editor of «Voprosy psychologii» describes the history and perspectives of the
Generalization of higher education contents as a factor of its development
Personal-developing higher education is considered as one of four strategies of
humanization. It is characterized by the influence of high level generalization. The
influence of generalization factor on all the elements of the triad — practice,
science and education — is shown. General principles of personal-developing higher
education and components of its realization are formulated.
Meaning and symbol in projective picture
Following F.E. Vasilyuk, the author considers the starting point for analysis of the
structure of symbols to be the psycho-semiotic model of consciousness image. A
projective picture «My family» symvolics was used as experimental data. The
specificity of unconscious display of every basic notion in image theoretic model —
object content, sign, meaning and personal sense — is discussed. The author places
special emphasis on the sense component: it manifests itself spontaneuosly through object
images and meanings of the picture. In addition, the symbolic image in its endless sense
perspective possesses not only individual but timeless supra-individual sense, which can
be understood as a manifestation of spiritual reality.
Characteristics of interpersonal relations in specialized boarding schools
Interpersonal relations among inmates of boarding schools for gifted adolescents are
analysed. External, institutional psychological closedness results in internal
psychological closedness. Educative-professional activity becomes very important for the
students. Both these factors lead to the formation of strict intragroup status
differentiation and to the development of «castes» that are defined in opposition to
each other. A teacher in such an institution often interacts with adolescents according
to already existing system of interrelations and so indirectly promotes informal
structure of such associations, contradicting educative purposes of boarding school.
The exercises for reading habit forming in Junior schoolchildren
More than twenty exercises and entertaining plays are described. They are aimed at
forming skills necessary for fluent, correct and meaningful reading. The exercises are
recommended for schoolchildren experiencing chronic reading difficulties.
Walter Cannon, Ivan Pavlov and the problem of emotional behavior
W. Cannon's theory of emotions denied James-Lange hypothesis of body — consciousness
dualism. The latter was critisized by L.S. Vygotsky as well as Scheler-Diltey intentional
theory. There was close personal and scientific bondage between W. Cannon and I.
Pavlov. W. Cannon included the concept of conditioned reflex in Ms theory of emotional
behavior. I. Pavlov included subcortex functions, corresponding to Cannon's «main
emotions», into the scheme of higher nervous activity. W. Cannon and I. Pavlov both
considered the behavior concept to be different from psychology of consciousness and
The works of pioneering psychoanalyst S. Spielrein
A. van Waning
The works of Russian psychoanalyst Sabina Spielrein (1885—1942) are reviewed. S.
Spielrein played a special and intriguing role in the development of psychoanalytic
thinking in the beginning of the century. After having been intimately involved with
Jung in personal and professional ways, later on in her life she adhered more to the
Freudian psychoanalytic approach. She kept corresponding with both men for many years.
Her own articles, 32 in number, have gotten little attention so far, except for
«Destruction as a cause of coming into being» in which she anticipated the «death
wish» concept. The themes of love, destruction and creativity are woven into her work and
life. The diversity of partners she chose to work with — next to Jung and Freud also
with Piaget — and her linguistic and neuropsychological interests show her to be a
versatile and self-willed pioneer. It is concluded that so far S. Spielrein has not
received the recognition she deserves.
Clinical psychology: the works of Russian psychiatrists of late XIX century
Before the victory of Vundt's views on the psychological experiment the latter was
considered to be a natural phenomenon — mental disease or psychological changes due to
hypnosis. Clinical psychology produced the first model of experimentation. The author
describes Russian psychiatrists' contribution in experimental-psychological studies.
For the memory of Teacher
(to the 100th anniversary of D.G. El'kin)
The author presents her memories on remarkable Russian psychologist D.G. EF-kin and his
The role of motivation and stimulation in integral individuality structures formation
V.V. Bclous, T.V. Kopan'
The roles of achievement motivation and the social world in the formation of integral
individuality structures is shown. When social characteristics are equal, success
achievement motives calls forth different sides of integral individuality. When success
achievement motives are equal and social characteristics are different (urban
environment versus rural one), identical integral individuality structures are
Temperament at an early age: Parental estimates and family characteristics
Stable behavior style in day nursery children and in their parents is examined by means
of questionnaires. The multi-dimensional structure of temperament is demonstrated,
maternal and paternal estimates are compared and social-economical position of a family
and its influence on children's temperament evaluated. It is shown that temperament in
young children can be conditioned by psycho-physiological characteristics such as
inhibition system. Environmental factors play their role in temperament formation too.
Temperament is an important parameter in the formation of life style.
The method to evaluate individual psychological prerequisites for driver's activity
The author reviews different tests of driver's competence and discusses its connection
to personal traits. The results of a study in experienced and unexperienced drivers arc