Вопросы психологии






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The science of behavior: Russian way

M.G. Yaroshevsky

A new scientific subject – behavioral  science – has been developed by Russian  scientists as an answer to logical demands  of human organism cognition: different  from psychology of consciousness, on the  one hand, and from neuro-phisiology, on  the other. Categorial apparatus was worked  out by I. Sechenov, I. Pavlov, G. Bekhterev,  L. Vygotsky, A. Ukhtomsky: inhibition,  conditional reflex, reinforcement, signal,  self-regulation, dominanta, orienting reflex,  signal systems correlation, etc. These  notiens reflect basic vital activity projected  to phisiological picture of organism and to  psychological one as well.

The peculiarities of child and adolescent  personal attitude towards nature

V.A. Yasvin

Dynamic and structural changes in child  and adolescent personal attitude towards  nature were experimentally investigated. It  is shown that its ontogenetic development is  of irregular and heterochronous character.  Some age-specific features of attitude  towards nature are demonstrated.

Schoolchildren's perception of human  image in paintings and drawings

V.A .Guruzhapov

The features of arts perception development in children 8 – 9 to 13 – 14 years of  age were longitudinally investigated. It is  shown that special educative conditions lead to adequate perception of human image  in paintings and drawings: junior children  comprehend actions of a personage and  senior children – the peculiarities of character and mood. Incomprehension is often  due to incorrect interpretation of certain  details and social stereotypes of art perception and does not possess age-specific characteristics.

Evaluation of educator's ability  for decentration

S.V. Zaitsev

Pedagogical consciousness of kindergarten educators is analysed. It is shown  that professional consciousness is not free  of inadequate and stereotype views on specific features of child's psychic organization. It is based on adult egocentrism phenomenon demonstrated and described by  the author. It is stated that educator's centration on adult position, inability to accept  child's standpoint, correctly interpret  child's words and actions is logical consequence of traditional (educative-disciplining) model. The transition to modern person-centered model is impossible without  radical changes in educators' professional  consciousness. Possible means to it are  described.

Psychological consulting of students:

Problems and special features

A.V. Yupitov

The author analyses questions asked and  problems discussed during psychological  consultation of the students. Some advice in  dealing with these is offered.

Psychological aspects of Chechnya  affair elucidation in TV programmes

T.L. Alavidze, K.V. Antonyuk, A.A. Vil'danova

Interpretation of Chechnya affair and its  participants in informative TV programmes  is discussed. Analysing psychological  mechanisms of audience's perception of  TV-formed picture of Chechnya crisis the  authors offer their prognosis of public opinion changes.

Reaction time and intelligence:

Why are they correlating?  (Concerning brain discriminative ability)

N.I. Chuprikova

Inner psychologo-phisiological causes of  correlation between reaction time and intelligence are discussed. The author argues  that one of fundamental indices of intelligence is brain discriminative ability: if psychic contents is syncretic and structures are  global-diffuse, then high levels of synthesis,  generalisation and abstraction are impossible. The notion that reaction time and stimulus identification time form good laboratory model for the exposure of brain discriminative ability, that is for the ability to distingwish and differentiate sensory, perceptive and conceptual contents is substantiated. A hypothesis of neuro-phisiological  mechanism of brain discriminative ability,  depending on culture, education and environment in general, and its morphological  basis, independent of these, is offered.

Moscow Psychological society  (1885-1992)

A.N. Zhdan

Modern concept of aims and methods  of psychology (an address on the first  Moscow Psychological society meeting,  March 14, 1$85)

M.M. Troitsky

The publications in commemoration of  110-th anniversary of Moscow Psychological society are presented: A.N. Zhdan  analyses its activity. Extracts from Society's first chairman M.M. Troitsky's address  are given.

Imitative behavior in early ontogenesis:

An experience of a study

M.V. Soboleva

A new method of imitative behavior in  enfants (5,9 – 14,9 months old) study is  offered. It was tried on 178 children. It is  shown that mimical imitation loses its leading part after 6 months of age. Some children (17%) do not demonstrate imitative  behavior.

K. Popper and psychology

O.K. Tikhomirov

The article depicts significant for psychology notions by K. Popper: the problems  of thinking, personal contacts, social conditionality of psyche, development, activity,  determinism and indeterminism, etc.