Вопросы психологии






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The personality and the essence: Inner and outer "Self of human being

A. B. Orlov

The article re-interprets traditional problematics of personality psychology and presents the concept of human personality and the essence as different (in its nature, origin and functions) psychological instances. The problems of personality structure, its formation, specificity of self-consciousness and its interrelations with the essence are discussed. The drama of these interrelations in human life is determined as subject of humanistic psychology.

Humanitarian psychology: The subject and functions

L. I. Vorob'eva

The results of philosophical and psychological roots of humanitarian psychology analysis are presented. Humanitarian psychology is considered to be post-classic stage of human being studies. Ten methodologic principles of humanitarian psychology are formulated and the attempt is made to show its origin in the broader understanding of natural sciences.

Elaboration of personality-centered education technology

I. S. Yakimanskaya

Different approaches to personality-oriented education are described. The author offers a model of such an education based on the recognition of pupil's subjective experience as an independent source of mental development. The notion of original self-sufficing subjective experience in education makes it necessary to elaborate pedagogical technology including an analysis of the means of learning activity;

student's independent choice of personally meaningful context of a curriculum through the construction of its content; equal discussion about it with a teacher; enrichment and transformation of subjective experience through education.

An experience in psychologo-pedagogical programming of teaming to read by the preschoolers

N. S. Pantina

The position of reading skills in general ontogenetic development of a preschooler is determined: it is a part of sign-system intellect formation. The representation of reading as of normative activity enables to examine the level of individualization and subjectivation of child's activity (special means of transformation, characteristic mistakes, main difficulties). It is a way to individualization of education and effective governing of educative processes.

Temporal aspect of self-image in senior preschoolers

T. V. Ermolova, I. S. Komortseva

Psychological time as perceived by preschoolers is experimentally studied in personality and communicative context of early development. It enables one to specify psychologic time psychosemantics and to mark out the personal contacts as leading factor in temporal aspects of self-consciousness in preschoolers. The unit of psychological time analysis is self-image in the past, in the present and in the future considered as a unity of cognitive and affective components of temporal self-regulation in young children.

Poli-modal approach and its application to child giftedness diagnostics

I. A. Kurbatova

The problems of child giftedness diagnostics are analyzed and substantiated by a poli-modal approach. The results of experimental study illustrate the poli-modal approach and demonstrate its predictive and heuristic advantages.

The influence of Stalinist repressions of the thirties on family life in three generations

K. Baker, Yu. B. Gippenreiler

The study of life stories of Stalinist repressions victims' grandchildren confirms M. Bowen's hypothesis on correlation between vertical cutoff and the efficiency of functioning in posterior generations. This correlation is demonstrated for "basic functioning". "Social functioning" in modem world is connected to grandchildren's inheritance of moral and ideal values of grandparents, active search of contacts with family roots ("family resources" after V. Satir) and the second and third generations' active protests against authoritarian regime.

Why do the Americans and Russians lie:

Russian psychologist's reflections on P. Eckman's book

V. V. Znakov

Psychological peculiarities of lie comprehension in Western and Russian cultures are discussed. Western definitions of lie usually mention the person who is lied to; the lie is considered to be one of the forms of violence -violation the rights of this person. Such a comprehension is called moral-legal one. Russian tradition sees in lie morally wrong action of a liar, and Russian dictionaries for the most part do not mention the person who is lied to. Such an altitude is reflected by the results of experimental study of Russian sample (286 persons). 90 participants included negative moral personal characteristics of a liar in their definition of lie. Statistically significant majority of participants think that white lie is the most common form, e. i. people lie in order not to morally damage another person; only 20 participants consider the lie as a means to protect one's own personal rights. Such an attitude is called subjective-moral one.

On the problem of psychotherapy of, borderline personality disorders

E. T. Sokolova

Family context of forming of borderline personality structure and splitting Self is analyzed. Pathogenous role of emotional deprivation, emotional symbiosis and other kinds of psychological and physical abuses in borderline personality disorders is underlined. The process of Self integration is interpreted after L-S. Vygotsky's cultural-historical concept. Some case studies from the author's own psychotherapeutical practice are presented.

On Tartu University students' estimation of their future

M. A. Kotik

The author presents a new modification of a method of revealing one's attitude to personally important events (previous publication see "Voprosy Psychologii", 1994, 1). The method is applied to Tartu University students estimation of their future career and family life. Estonians are much more optimistic as to their future than Russians. The differences in estimations are found between boys and girls; students of different faculties; students with different degrees of academic achievement.

In Russian psychological society

The account of Russian Psychological society foundation and its President address are presented.

Diagnostics of mass media comprehension by senior schoolchildren

E-V. Shuvarikova

Mental development of senior schoolchildren was diagnosed by means of mass media comprehension as one of its indices. The stages of working out the test for mass media comprehension and the results of its approbation on a sample of senior schoolchildren are described. The practical application of such a test is possible in occupational consulting for sociology, economy, politology, history, etc.

Psychology of environment: sources and directions of development

Yu. G. Abramova

Foreign studies of psychology of environment are reviewed, especially those discussing interaction of human being and environment. The notions of environmental behavior, environmental stress, environmental assessment, etc. are presented.

The development of emotion language in children

O. V. Gordeeva

Foreign studies as compared to Russian ones of prerequisites and conditions of emotion language development are reviewed. The process of interiorization of emotion names, of their meanings development is shown to represent ontogenetic changes in structure of meanings. The possibilities of structural analysis for the study of terms describing emotions are discussed.