Anthropological principle in developmental psychology
V. I. Slobodchikov, E. I. Isaev
Existing paradigms of developmental psychology determining the type of psychological studies and the character of psychological knowledge are reviewed. The "pros" and "contras" of traditional paradigmal notions are shown. Anthropological approach in developmental psychology is introduced and theoretically substantiated. Basic concepts of development principle (object, moving powers, mechanisms of development) are interpreted according to their content.
What is "educative environment" at school and how to expose it?
I. M. Ulanovskaya, N. I. Polivanova,
I. V. Ermakova
The notion of "educative environment" is discussed. It is connected to real inner goals of school administration and teachers. Original methodical instruments for its evaluation are offered. Environmental factors (psychological climate, educative process structure, interpersonal relations) and their influence on schoolchildren's intellectual and social-personal development are considered.
Comparative-psychological study of enlivening complex
G. G. Filippova
Human communication and the earliest phase of its formation in ontogenesis - enlivening complex - is discussed. Two sides of communication are outlined: communication as an activity and communication as a means and condition of other types of activity. The former is determined as a functional activity; the need for it is contained in the process of this activity itself. Philogenetic prerequisites of such a need are shown. Comparative-psychological analysis of child's enlivening complex and the development of sensomotor activity and the means of communication in ontogenesis is presented.
The publication of the programs - winners of contest is continued.
Kolpachnikov V. V. Introduction to individual psychological consulting
Vasilyuk F. E. Psychotechnical analysis of psychotherapeutical process
Psychological mechanisms of visual
perception process: Integrative model
V. M. Krol
Experimental results and theoretical propositions of visual perception integral model are discussed. Thresholds and typical errors on some stages of test figure recognition were measured. It has been found that the analysis of recognition errors may lead to unmasking of mini-stages in recognition process. Recognition parameters (thresholds and duration of stages) depend on perceptive context. The model presented is based on the thesis that recognition is controlled search for complicated fragments with parameters correlating with criteria of perceptive description of image class.
Concerning symbiotic conjugate dominant
as the basis of symbiotic connection mechanism
M. N. Mironova
The role of symbiotic connections in personal anomalies' forming is analyzed. The hypo-thesis is presented that the basic mechanism of symbiotic connection forming is conjugate dominant (after A. A. Oukhtomsky). Mother - child symbiotic conjugate dominant id described.
The influence of violence experienced
in childhood on personal disorders' formation
S. V. Il'ina
The author presents a review of publications on the influence of different forms of violence (physical, sexual, emotional, psychological) on child's psyche and personality. Special attention is paid to the correlation of violence and the stages of personal development and the vulnerability of preschoolers and adolescents is underlined. Three basic trends in psychotherapeutical approach (psychodinamic, cognitive, humanistic) are discussed. Every one of them has its own sphere of usefulness, so their comparison is irrelevant.
Literature and psychology: concerning humanitarian approach history
I. E. Sirotkina
The article uses the material of the history of psychology and psychiatry to throw into relief the differences between the scientific and the humanistic approaches. In contrast with the Naturwissenschaften, the Geisteswissenschaften overtly addressed the question of human values, and they borrowed epistemological model from history and literature rather than from the natural sciences. At the turn of the century, many Russian psychologists and psychiatrists supported the project of the Geisteswissenschaften. Psychiatrists often conceptualized their patents in terms of literary characters, and psychologists looked for personality types in literature rather than in psychological experiments. The attempts to analyze psychology with the help of literary and historical descriptions revealed both the values shared by psychologists and psychiatrists and their close involvement in the contemporary political life.
Microdinamics of action motor stage
N. D. Gordeeva, I. V. Evsevicheva,
V. P. Zinchenko, A. V. Kurgansky
Experimental study has shown that the longevity of movement alters its structure, which is determined by its goal as well. Changes in the longevity of action result in statistically significant variation of absolute and relative time of movement phases. Integral quantum of action includes cognitive, executive and estimative components.