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SUMMARIES

 

Interpersonal relations: ontogenetic approach

 

E. O. Smirnova

 

The author uses a humanistic approach to consider the problem of interpersonal relations. The author hypothesizes that the insufficiency of other peoples' perceptions as an external factor of personal life is based on the notion of dialogicality of consciousness. Basic inclusion of interpersonal relations in a person's self-perception is emphasized. Two types of human relations I-He and I-You are described. The latter is genetically primary and necessary for child's consciousness and the development of self-perception.

 

Mother-child interaction

 

R. H. Muhamedrakhimov

 

Modern studies of the child's orientation to interaction with the mother, child-oriented mother's behavior, and the process of their interaction are reviewed. The data on the formation of the child's attachment to the mother, on the influence of mother's behavior on child's attachment, and later development of the child are analyzed. The need to work out measures for children at risk and their rehabilitation in close interaction with mothers is emphasized.

 

The development of the child's conception of emotional ambivalence

 

. V. Gordeeva

 

The author describes consecutive development of ambivalence understanding in children and compares it to the formation of notions of causality in emotional sphere and to general cognitive development. Modem psychoanalytic literature on the development of ability to have ambivalent emotions is analyzed as well as the differentiating and integrative role these emotions play in the comprehension of experience.

 

Mental states: their correction and formation

 

Yu. B. Nekrasova

 

Mental states are considered to be the main psychological mechanism of the socio-rehabilitation of patients suffering from stammering because this defect applies to the sphere of personal contacts and self-presentation of the individual. The author presents the method of socio-rehabilitation in order to call forth, prolong and secure mental states so as to move the personality to a higher level of development. The main groups of mental states are investigated; they exist as playback for effectively applied method of influence on patient.


 

Organization of motivational inclusion of stammerers and their relatives in socio-rehabilitative process

 

N. L. Karpova

 

The experience of rehabilitative work with stammerers shows the necessity of active inclusion not only of the stammerers themselves but their friends and relatives into the process. The method of such motivational-personal inclusion is offered as a means to cure logoneurosis as system disfunction of communication.

 

The experience of divergent behavior prevention by psychological correction program in difficult form

 

O.L. Romanova, I. V. Ivannikova

 

Modem preventive programs are successfully employed not only for addictive behavior prevention but also for broader tasks of psychological correction in child collectives. The authors describe the experience of an Australian divergent behavior prevention program applied in a Moscow school. The dynamics of self-evaluation and sociometry show the possibility of using foreign preventive programs in Russian schools.

 

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The problem of non-normative mental development

 

I. A. Myasoed

 

Non-normative mental development is analyzed as a special type of ontogenesis. Using an activity approach, the author places non-normative mental development between mental anomaly and the mental norm and argues that it is determined by biological, social and psychological factors. Non-normative mental development manifests itself on an organismic level as underdevelopment (or hyper-development) of cognitive, affective and instrumental processes due to the immaturity of brain structures (or early maturity); on the level of individual as non-normative personality traits due to incorrect, partial and especially inconsistent up-bringing; and on the level of the personality as self-realization by actions of an egotist using other people as a means to an end. Psychological correction of non-normative mental development can be rendered as a social optimization of child's developmental situation.

 

Psychodiagnostics of teachers' professional maladaptation ("emotional burn out" syndrome)

 

T. V. Fonnanyuk

 

The author reviews foreign studies of the phenomenon of emotional bum out. Teachers' inclination to this syndrome is considered to be one of the important indicators of professional unfitness. The ability to withstand maladaptation is a necessary component of pedagogical ability. The author finds scientific continuity in these findings with the research of Russian scientists A. S. Shafranova and M. M. Rubinstein.

 

The problem of vocational self-determination in pedagogical college professors

 

E. Yu. Pryzhnikova

 

The specificity of vocational self-determination in working professional men as compared to school graduates, students and unemployed is analyzed. The author presents the results of a comparative study of vocational self-determination in pedagogical college professors using traditional and experimental means on teaching.

 

Cultural-historical analysis and the possibility of using non-verbal communication in rehabilitative personal education

 

E. I. Feigenberg, A. G. Asmolov

 

The possibilities of using non-verbal communication in rehabilitative personal education in cases of aphasia are analyzed from L. S. Vygotsky's cultural-historical perspective.

 

The nature of variability in characteristics of sensory-motor reactions in different conditions

 

S. N. Ivanchenko, S. B. Malykh

 

The contributions of genetic and environmental effects to reaction time (RT) variation in different experimental conditions were examined. A battery of 6 different RT tests measuring the speed of sensory-motor response was administered to 21 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) and 21 pairs of same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twins, aged 914. Auditory stimuli of 5 intensities were organized in sequences with constant inter-stimuli intervals. Tasks differed with respect to the stimuli sequence (regular or random), response (simple or choice RT) and response speed (fast response or unlimited response time). Behavioral genetic technique (model fitting) was used to estimate genetic and environmental effects in the observed RT measures. Four basic models were tested for each of the experimental conditions. The results of genetic analysis indicated that automated response in regular series was determined by genotype while more complex actions (choice RT, RT in random series) depended on environmental factors.

 

Sechenov's innovation:

Historical fact or stalinist fiction (An answer to American sovetologist D. Joravsky

 

M. G. Yaroshevsky

 

D. Joravsky in his book Russian Psychology offers inadequate estimation of I. M. Sechenov's ideas, denying him the role of an innovator. Contrary to Joravsky's statements, Sechenov's concept includes radical transformation of the two categories reflex and psyche and does not argue

 

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the spreading of reflex principle on brain activity or interpret psyche as a main part of reflex. Sechenov shows that any mental act is of reflex type it necessary includes signal connection of an organism to its environment and muscle reaction. Inner mental plan of behavior is transformed into outer one (interiorization principle). D. Joravsky ignores Sechenov's role as an author of the first in the history of psychology programme of objective psychology, as well as his influence on I. P. Pavlov, V. M. Bekhterev and other initiators of modem behavioristic science (the priority belongs to Russian scientists). D. Joravsky is mistaken in his views on social roots of Sechenov's ideas and their function in Russian culture.

 

Personal factors of decision making diagnostics

 

T. V. Kornilova

 

The problem of diagnosing readiness to take risks and rationality as personal factors influencing decision making is discussed. The connection of these factors to intellectual mediation of decision making is investigated. The method of personal factors of decision making based on standard Q-sorting procedure is presented.

 

Experimental study of implicit theories of reading

 

I. M. Kondakov, S. V. Oushnev

 

The process of reading is a complex psychological phenomenon, where metacognitive skills govern executive cognitive ones. The leading role played by a subjective dynamic model of reading (recognized as implicit theory of reading) ensures playback. By means of psycho-semantic analysis, the main points of implicit theories of reading are experimentally studied. These features are connected to objective parameters of reading; their correlation is complex.

 

Spiritual dimensions of psychotherapy and healing

 

S. Krippner

 

Spiritual healing is not a common practice in industrialized nations, but it once permeated all forms of medicine, psychotherapy and counseling. The word spiritual can be used to describe those aspects of human behavior and experience that reflect an alleged transcendent intelligence or process, a transcendent entity that inspires devotion and directs behavior. Different approaches to spiritual healing are described.

 

Contemporary foreign longitudinal studies of giftedness

 

E. I. Shcheblanova, I. S. Averina

 

The review presents recent foreign publications that demonstrate the advantages of longitudinal studies of giftedness in their application to educational issues. Reviewed works investigate early determinants of later academic and career achievements and creativity and employ various identification procedures and theoretical orientations.

 

Children and school in an epoch of abundance

 

S. Murayama

 

The author analyzes the inner world of Japanese children and marks out such negative features as cruelty and indifference to other people. Though the reasons for these undesirable traits in Japanese and in Russian children are different, the tendency is common for children in both countries.