" " (1980-1998 .).  ... 

189

 

 

Time to collect the stones

 

V. G. Kostomarov

 

The results of election in Academy of pedagogical sciences of the USSR are presented. Its new President's V. G. Kostomarov's address is published.

 

Ontogenetics of human individuality

 

M. S. Egorova, T. M. Maryutina

 

A new area of studies ontogenetics or developmental psychogenetics is presented. It deals with genetic and environment factors' role in individual differences' forming in ontogenesis and individual trajectories of development. Theoretical basis of developmental psychogenetics is analyzed. Possible ways of interaction between psychogenetics and psychophysiological and psychological notions are discussed. Interdisciplinary studies uniting these three branches of science (developmental psychogenetics, developmental psychology and psychophysiology) enable one to solve some theoretical and applicational problems, while another methods do not give unequivocal results.

 

On dialogue in psychological consulting

 

A. F. Kopiev

 

Psychological consulting and psychotherapy are considered in accordance with M. M. Bakhtin's dialogue concept. Dialogical .approach to consultation involves contacts with a client as with a free person. Taking part in dialogue or avoidance of it is a result of free choice and it can be used as an important index of client's real orientation towards consulting. The significance of this index is stressed and possible approaches of a psychologist taking it into account are presented. "Silence principle" is analyzed as one of the foundations of psychological consultation.

 

Reflective consciousness genesis in junior schoolchildren

 

V. I. Slobodchikov, G. A. Zuckerman

 

Is there an interiorization only?

 

A. B. Orlov

 

What is there to discuss?

 

V. I. Slobodchikov, G. A. Zuckerman

 

The article deals with interpsychic factors of reflective consciousness development in 610 years old children. Basic notions for exposure and realization of these factors in primary school are presented. The data of the article serve as a foundation for project of pedagogics including the development of child's personality, consciousness and abilities in educational system.

The article is accompanied by A. B. Orlov's review of more general character than the article itself, and the article's authors' responce to it.

 

Psychophysiological substantiation of technical means of education use in aircraft personnel training

 

V. A. Ponomarenko, A. A. Vorona, N. N. Zatsarny

 

The article is dedicated to methodological problems of education. Image regulation of activity concept and experimental data concerning professional skills formation analysis are used in order to substantiate new approaches to education. The possibility of mastering of necessary operations intensification when using modern technical means of education is shown.

 

The development of will and arbitrariness in early ontogenesis

 

E. O. Smirnova

 

There is an attempt to determine psychological essence of "will" and "arbitrariness" notions. Two general approaches to it are discussed on the basis of literature review. The first of them considers the above mentioned notions in consciousness context, and the other one deals with them in motivation context. This distinction leads to a hypothesis of different content and lines of development of will and arbitrariness. According to this hypothesis the development of arbitrariness can be attributed to self-control means, and the development of will can be related to motivation sphere formation. The sources and motive forces of will and arbitrariness development are discussed.

 

The peculiarities of professional self-consciousness forming

 

L. M. Mitina

 

The improvement of pedagogical work and perfection of teacher's personality demand the optimization of teacher's self-consciousness forming. Complex strategy showing teacher's potential and aiming at personality development, its correction and compensation is necessary for purposeful forming of teacher's self-consciousness. Author's program was tried at school. It showed principal possibility and necessity of purposeful forming of teacher's professional self-consciousness.

 

190

 

Gender differences and modern school education

 

G. M. Breslav, B. I. Hasan

 

The problems of sex identification in schoolchildren are discussed. Historical-cultural and "psychological factors leading to distortion of sex identification formation in schoolchildren are shown. The necessity of sex differentiation in form and content of education is stressed. There is a doubt that present joint education for boys and girls is a right one. Longitude comparative study of the matter is proposed.

 

Correlation between successfulness of art creativeness

and child's personality trend

 

M. E. Kanevskaya, L. M. Firsova

 

The problem of correlation between successful-ness of child's art creation and personality trend (personal value) is stated. Experimental data show that any type of personality trend can serve as a condition of successful art creation but the most favourable one is value of relations type.

 

On functions of reflection in game education of managers

 

V. V. Davydov, S. D. Neverkovich, N. V. Samoukina

 

Psychological and organizational functions of reflection in developing education and in game activity are described. It is noted that reflection plays part in interaction of organizational and research divisions. Structure-functional model of reflective analysis is presented, as well as qualification research method. General stages of projecting, organization and study of a game together with methodical modes for activization of participants' reflection are given.

 

Concerning the foundation of adolescents' social-psychological support center

 

V. L. Haikin

 

The article is based on an address to the Plenum of USSR State Committee on People's Education. The problems of adolescents' upbringing and delinquency preventing are discussed. The necessity of foundation of social-psychological support and legal protection for children and adolescents center is stressed. General principles, structure and functions of the center are considered.

 

Professionalization of students' memory

 

V. A. Maraev, G. P. Holopova

 

The professionalization of students' (physisists-mathematicians' and philologists') memory was studied. The participants (304 students) were required to reproduce a series of 30 words that could be groupped and of 21 unconnected words. The mean volume of memory was the same for both groups, but physisists-mathematicians' memory was of choice nature. They groupped the words by their sense, and the philologists did that by their formal properties. The differences manifested themselves in retroactive interference, particularly in its connection to progress in studies.

 

The usage of fashion mechanisms in pedagogical practice

 

E. Yu. Novikova, V. A. Petrovsky

 

Interaction between fashion and personality is analyzed. There is fashion orientation specific for every stage of personal development adaptation, individualization and integration. The types of fashion standard imitation on adaptation stage are shown by the authors differentiating learning and conformity imitation. There is possible individual way in upbringing and education on individualization stage. The problems of referentiality and of play-back in forming of aesthetical views are discussed. All the notions are illustrated by school experience. There are recommendations for the usage of fashion mechanisms in upbringing of adolescents.

 

The program of psychologist's activity in pioneers' camp

 

E. I. Rogov

 

The development of summer recreation children's camps and psychological service in them are considered. It must be based on school psychologists' traditions and on A. V. Petrovskiy's concept of collective and personality development. There are concrete methods enabling the psychologist to reach the goals of every stage. The article can be useful in children recreation organization.

 

Creative nature of human psyche

 

V. T. Kudriavtsev

 

Creative nature of human psyche is analyzed in connection to its cultural-historical determination. The necessity to overcome adaptation-homeostatic tendencies in psychic essence and its development interpretation is substantiated. The creative character of appropriation of culture by a person is shown. The comprehension of imagination as universal property of consciousness is proposed. The possibility of modern psychological theories' renovation is considered in the light of creative nature of human psyche notion.

 

Musical culture and emotional crisis

 

A. D. Perepelitsa

 

The author asserts that in an integral pedagogical system musical culture is closely connected

 

191

 

to economic and social development. The methodical changes in musical cultural education are not enough. Some of the concrete reasons of musical culture decline are stated, school musical programs are criticized. The author urges to make the rapid transition to really mass musical education.

 

Neuropsychological approach: from simplification to system-dynamic analysis of foreign language learning

 

B. S. Kotik

 

The article is an answer to M. F. Kosilova's publication (Vopr. psychol. 1990. N2). It states that the summons to make transition from left hemispheric style in education to right hemispheric one and vice versa are proofless. Presently some attempts are made to bridge the gap between data on brain functioning and the use of these data in actual foreign language learning. The best way to achieve results is to use early and intensive education taking into account individual peculiarities of students.

 

To the 100-th anniversary of N. D. Levitov

 

Well-known Soviet psychologist N. D. Levitov played an important part in the development of Soviet psychological science. He was the author of many text-books for colleges. N. D. Levitov's scientific interests included psychology of character, problems of psychic states, etc.

 

Hindrance-proof voluntary regulation of intellectual activity and hemispheric brain asymmetry

 

E. D. Homskaya, E. V. Budyka, I. V. Efimova

 

The results of a study concerning hindrance-proof voluntary regulation of serial counting activity by male students are presented. The respondents are found to have different types of individual profile of lateral organization of sensor and motor functions. The hindrance-proof activity proves to be dependable on the type of profile of lateral organization of functions: the persons with predominance of left-side asymmetry of sensor and motor functions are more hindrance-proof.

 

The group belonging and self-perception of a personality

 

E. P. Avduyevskaya

 

The group belonging is considered as a social set. Its cognitive component includes knowledge and adoption of group norms and goals; affective one includes the sense of "We"; behavioural one includes the readiness of a person to joint actions for achievement of group goals. Different forms of group belonging are found empirically. The correlation of self-perception dynamics (differentiation, flexibility, conflictability) and concrete forms of group belonging is shown.

 

Concerning application frustration Rosenzweig test in school psychodiagnostics

 

D. V. Lubovsky

 

Rosenzweig's method, widely used by educational psychologists, has a lot of virtues in comparison to many other methods but some normative indexes for our sample are lacking. Being theoretically based it can serve as means of meaningful validization for another methods (for instance, R. Gil's one). A study of 30 1112 years old schoolchildren supplies normative data for Rosenzweig's test. Correlation analysis shows reality of some R. Gil's method's factors. It is concluded that joint use of these methods for interpersonal research on schoolchildren can give good results.

 

Health, anxiety and physical exercise

 

W. P. Morgan, K. A. Ellickson

 

The article reviews theoretical positions that have played prominent roles in research and applications in sport psychology. It elaborates on the research evidence dealing with the immediate or acute effects of vigorous exercise on state anxiety. There is an extensive literature demonstrating that active, physically fit individuals experience a reduction in state anxiety following vigorous physical exercise. These effects occur in persons with high trait anxiety, as well as those who fall within the normal range, and these effects have been found to be independent of age and gender. It appears that the anxiolytic effects of exercise last for approximately 2 3 hours, whereas passive interventions such as meditation and quiet rest have less persistent effects. The mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced tension reduction have not been identified, and research involving the question of "why" anxiety is reduced after exercise needs to be undertaken.

 

Models of alcohol influence on behavior

 

T. G. Rumyantseva

 

The article is a review of the most wide-spread in Western psychology models of alcohol influence on aggressive behavior of a person. There are 1) pharmacological disinhibition psychological and psychodynamic, 2) model of heightened physiological arousal, 3) theory of so called studied disinhibition. The modern stage of research is characterized by a tendency to avoid the excesses of the above-mentioned models and to work out better, synthetic one. The advantages of synthetic model are presented, some of its conclusions and results are analyzed. This model promotes further theoretical research and practical search for means to prevent direct interpersonal aggression.