PE3ŮME HA A═├╦╚╔CKOM ▀ă█KE
Personality's psychological experience: concerning the substantiation of an approach
L. I. Vorobiova, T. V. Snegiriova
The authors endeavor to attach theoretical status to the notion of źpsychological experiences╗ and so to introduce existential personality problems and life-sense connections to scientific research. The consciousness is considered as universum of existence experience. The sense of life of a personality becomes system-forming mechanism of consciousness. The sense of life is of cultural-symbolical nature and is realized in cultural-historical gestalts (myths, idealogisms and so on). Inheritance of sense of life mechanisms are different from rational knowledge acquisition. Some of them are well-known in psychology: emotional imprinting, identification, emotional experience. Authors' approach synthesizes different traditions and enables the researchers to realize two of L. S. Vygotsky's cultural-historical concepts: creation of źhigh psychology of personality╗ and accumulation of empirical knowledge in psychological practice.
Exactness, veritable knowledge and źtechnological fiction╗ in psychology
E. A. Klimov
Professional activity of a psychologist (a researcher as well as a practical worker) naturally includes not only veritable knowledge but some unreal approaches (normative, value ones, and deliberate usage of fiction Ś technological fictions Ś as necessary means of approaching the truth). There is a brief survey of these approaches in different areas of social consciousness as compared to psychologists' thinking. Exactness serving as a criterion for veritable knowledge it is useful to cultivate not only metrical exactness but semantic, logical, historical ones as well Ś humanistic approaches in psychology cease to be inaccurate then.
The concept of psychological regression
The paper examines the heuristic value of the concept of psychological regression. The language of semiotic mediation of behavioral acts and mental operations seems to be more adequate at the present stage of research than the traditional psychoanalytic metaphors of mental źeconomy╗ and cathexis. This position is supported by a number of developmental and clinical studies undertaken by L. S. Vygotsky and his students. Analysis of these studies allows to make a tentative suggestion regarding a formal scale of cognitive advancement/ regression, which may replace the search for empirical coincidences in the behavior of children, people in źprimitive╗ societies, and mental patients. While constructing such a scale one should take into account the type of communicative situation in which źregressive╗ forms of behavior of thinking are observed.
Social-psychological analysis of children's conflicts during play
Ya. L. Kolominsky, B. P. Zhiznevsky
Such components of arising in children's play conflicts as (a) conflict's cause, (b) modes of interaction during a conflict, (c) means of conflict settling are considered. All these aspects are illustrated by empirical data (1Ś6 years old children). The authors suppose that children group decision in the situation of conflict serves as specific communication sign by which the group controls its conduct.
A. S. Makarenko's comprehension of his wards' personality as a standard of pedagogical perception
K. V. Verbova, S. V. Kondratyeva
Analysis of 47 pupil's characters made by A. S. Makarenko shows the sides of his comprehension of his wards qualitatively different from that of typical average teacher. The latter considers his pupil first of all as a subject of learning activity, and the comprehension of his ward as an integral personality is typical for Makarenko. His views are dialectical so he looks for internal logics of child's personal qualities system in its dynamics and contradiction, for reflection of these qualities genesis in general life connections, and considers child's zone of nearest development. The unification of reflective and social-perceptive processes is distinctive peculiarity of Makarenko's pedagogical creativeness.
Psychological criteria of effectiveness in literary teaching at school
G. N. Kudina
The general system of schoolchildren's literary development assessment is proposed. As a criterion
the author uses the notion of źsocial-psycho-logical standard╗ offered by K. M. Gurevich. The strategy of a search for such a standard for an adult (concerning perusal of a concrete lyric) and a modification of it depending on education and age levels are stated. The resulting age standards enable one to assess the outcome of literary teaching in different grades and so to assess different types of teaching.
The peculiarities of schoolchildren's first impression concerning another person
N. I. Babich
Age peculiarities of 1-3-graders' first impression concerning another person were studied. School-children's social perception depended on general aspects of their cognitive sphere, including exterior characteristics, fixed conditions and personal peculiarities. The course of experimental training in order to activate schoolchildren's perceptive abilities is offered.
The study of pedagogical Intercourse individual style
A. A. Korotaev, T. S. Tambovtseva
The study of pedagogical intercourse individual style was based on system approach. The correlation between intercourse operations and properties of two individuality's levels (temperament and personality) of experienced teachers were investigated. Correlation analysis data showed multilateral interaction of these factors. As a result three types of pedagogical intercourse individual style were found: źgentle╗ one, realized on personal level of contacts, źhard╗ one, realized on businesslike level, and źflexible╗ one, realized on both levels.
The peculiarities of personal self-determination of nenets children dwelling in boarding-schools
O. V. Lishin, T. M. Bostanzhieva, I. S. Provorova
Nenets schoolchildren dwelling in boarding-school in a village of Yamal peninsula were studied. Low level of socially useful activity was found as a consequence of teachers' pedagogical unskilfulness and of raindeer-breeders' children psychological crisis, resulting from their rejection of social norms established at the boarding-school, and separation from their ethnic and family environment. On the other hand, nenets adolescents demonstrate high level of personal interest in knowledge and of social responsibility for education results. Ethnic-cultural crisis of Nenets schoolchildren is connected to general ecological and social one of indigenous population.
Reflective-perceptive analysis in pedagogical activity
A. A. Rean
The paper is dedicated to psychological problems of teacher's cognition of pupil's personality. The notion of reflective-perceptive analysis for its description and for that of self-cognition is presented. The results of empirical study of pupil's learning motivation structure by a teacher are considered.
The development of differential sensitiveness to spatial-temporal parameters of movements during sports lessons
T. A. Ratanova
The investigation included diagnostics of differentia] sensitiveness and of development of schoolchildren's (first-graders') ability to distinguish minimal movement changes by spatial, temporal and power parameters during 5Ś12-minutes sports lessons. The exercises and methodic devices based on graded increase of speed, effort and amplitude of movements, recommended for sports coaches and trainers, are described.
The problems arising before school psychologist connected with pedagogical conference
V. E. Pahalian
Using his own experience of school psychologist, the author describes the main problems in preparation and carrying out of pedagogical conference. General stages of psychologist's work and their specificity are shown and some effective and optimal means of interaction between a psychologist and the teachers in order to solve the problems of child's personality development and the development of student body are offered.
Dr. Verner's image in M. Yu. Lermontov's novel źHero of Our Age╗ as an object of psychological experimenting
B. A. Nahapetov
The analysis of Dr. Verner's (one of the main characters in M. Yu. Lermontov's novel źHero of Our Age╗) artistic embodiment shows creative surpassing of Lafater's and Gall's theories by M. Yu. Lermontov. The paper's author is the first to note the possibility of Chembar district doctor G. N. Belynsky being the źpsychological model╗ of Dr. Verner.
The category of activity and the subject of psychology
A. A. Piskoppel
The correlation between the category of activity and the statement and solution of the subject of psychology question, on one hand, and the problem of psychological categories' systematization and possibilities for the category of subject activity to play part of substance base of psychology, on the other hand, are discussed. Interrelation of social-philosophical content and psychological one of category of activity are analyzed.
The wastefulness of brain economic strategy
M. F. Kosilova
The paper deals with a particular case of incongruence between effort and result: a large amount of time and force consuming exercises invented by foreign language teachers to cope with the persistent tendency of the students to ignore formal grammatical means when reading scientific literature Ś and inefficiency of all that. It can be supposed that the teachers do not take into account some peculiarities of the deep psychological mechanisms of processing information. The paper argues that by reading scientific literature the students use a holistic strategy that corresponds to the principle of least effort by reading the texts with high predictability but turns out to be inadequate with less predictable material. The analytical strategy as running counter to the principle of economy is very difficult to develop. A method aiming at achieving this goal is proposed.
Reflexological studies of child's development
T. D. Martsinkovskaya
V. M. Bekhterev's reflexology was one of the main trends of pedological studies carried out in USSR in the twenties Ś thirties. Bekhterev was the founder of Russian scientific pedology working out objective approach to child's personality and child's psychic development studies. Reflexology examined many problems Ś from the stages of childĺs development to personality typology and collective forming. Bekhterev's studies played important part in psychology's restructuring on materialistic foundations. These works, though some - what mechanistic, are of indubitable interest for modern scientists especially because of being unknown to many of them. Bekhterev's studies of genetic and pedagogical reflexology were continued by his co-workers N. M. Shchelovanov and V. S. Osipova.
Factors influencing recollection of intention
L. J. Kvavilashvili
Factors conducive to recollecting of intention were experimentally studied including perseverance, activity character, latent period, significance of intention itself. Ascertained correlations served as the foundation of effective mnemonic modes increasing the probability of vitally important intention recollection.
Sensitiveness of kinesthetic analyzer and human psychomotorics
L. P. Sergienko, V. P. Korenevich
Interrelation between sensitiveness of kinesthetic analyzer and human psychometric behaviour is described. There were 101 examinees 8Ś15 years old. Positive correlation was found between the sensitiveness of kinesthetic analyzer and rapidity of motor skills mastering. This interrelation becomes stronger as a result of ontogenetic process. The data of presented experimental study can be used in practical choice of children and adolescents for sports training.
Stages of computer-based psychodiagnostics analysis (on the example of MMPI)
O. K. Tikhomirov, L. N. Sobchik, L. P. Guryeva, I. E. Garber, N. V. Tarnovskaya, A. L. Remezova
Psychological consequences of psychodiagnostics by MMPI computerization are considered. The comparison of computer-based and traditional forms of psychodiagnostics shows some positive new formations, enlarging its effectiveness, and some negative ones, complicating it and hindering its productive result. The correlation of positive and negative new formations is not linear and depends on concrete conditions of computerized MMPI application. The perfection of these conditions leads to optimization of computer-based MMPI usage.
The types of verbal connections in associative field
G. A. Martinovich
All the kinds of verbal associations are considered as particular cases of associations by contiguity and likeness, determined by formal, functional and pithy signs. The associations evolving and implanting in human language consciousness because of regular joint usage of words in speech (texts), that is the association by functional contiguity, play important part in associative field organization. All the elements of associative field
on the most general level are united by their own thematic connections, where all the other kinds of interrelations manifest themselves.
Attributive characteristics of a personality
A. A. Faizullaev
The problem of another person's characteristic virtues attributing is considered. The author presents a method of apportionment of 8 subject's positions enabling one to achieve attributive characteristic. The peculiarities of these positions and subpositions in the framework of which definite projective content is actualized are shown. Diagnostic experiment data are discussed and presented method's possibilities are stated.
Personality as a function of human design
The distinctive characteristics of human personality is a consciousness capable of reflection and able to create variants of itself by design. The author reviews the developing situation in personality theory as he now sees it, and outlines źdesign-functionalism in personality╗ in its development. It is an approach to the psychology of personality through a consideration of the implications for consciousness of the basic features of the design of man. The most distinctive features of human personality are: our inherent duality; the pervasiveness and generative power of conflict; our capacity to choose and to grow from our choices; and our power to create and to evolve by our own design through reflection upon the changes we bring about.
źActivity-oriented psychology of personality╗ in G. Cramponĺs concept
A. P. Cornelio
The main trends of G. Cramponĺs partial theory are reviewed. This theory connects personal level of self-regulation of actions with źgeneralization of personal expectations╗ and aspires to integrate the psychology of personality. It is stated that G. Cramponĺs theory is productive when the notions of źexpected values╗, źlocus of control╗, źI-concept╗ are considered as the regulation of actions structuring factors result but does not deal with such aspects of self-regulation that are connected with the level of activity/personality (not coming to the sum total of action realization forms) analysis.