Addressing the young psychologists
E. A. Klimov
The author — the dean of Moscow University psychological department — addresses the students. Ho underlines the dual nature of psychology — it produces the new information and, on the other hand, it consists of certain actions. Scientific research and psychological practice require different sorts of professionals. The main functions of a psychologist directed to society benefit are stated. Basic principles of scientific discussions are considered. There are some indisputable scientific authorities (they are listed) to be leaned upon to overcome arising contradictions (which are however necessary for scientific development).
Personality: a person within the world and the world within the person
D. A. Leontiev
The integration of two paradigms of person's study — natural science paradigm "person within the world" and humanitarian one "world within the person" is approached. The notion of personal meaning is considered to be a connecting link between them. The concept of personality is introduced on philosophical and psychological levels of analysis, the ways of autonomous personality formation and the phenomena of the loss or rejection of personality are discussed.
An attempt to construct psychologo-pedagogical concept of preschool upbringing
E. V. Bodrova, V. V. Davydov, V. A. Petrovskiy, R. B. Sterkina
The leading tendencies of kindergarten renewal — strengthening of child's health (both physical and psychological) protection, humanization of education, emancipation of children and their tutors, continuity of all social stages of childhood, radical changes of pedagogical education — are considered.
Cognitive interests' peculiarities of senior schoolchildren during differentiated education
I. S. Yakimanskaya, N. I. Yudashina
Information about content and dynamics of senior schoolchildren's interests when absorbed in a subject makes it necessary to work out psycho-logo-pedagogical criteria of selection of school-children for advanced learning, to use untraditional methods of education, to elicit schoolchildren's motivational, cognitive and emotional peculiarities. Special multidimentional studies and dyagnostic and correction methods were used for that purpose.
Psychologo-pedagogical problems of speech developmont in preschoolers
F. A. Sokhin
On the 9th of March, 1989, F. A. Sokhin, well-known soviet psychologist, died. To perpetuate the memory of F. A. Sokhin, part of his unpublished thesis for a Doctor's degree is presented. Language mastering by a child is characterized not only by imitation of adult's speech and intuitive adoption of language means and norms, but first and foremost by development of language generalization and elementary realization of language phenomena.
Levels of problem solving by students
A. V. Furman
The article gives an account of psychological content and peculiarities of problem solving by an individual, and the role of problems in instruction is determined. It contains an analysis of the dependency between the problematic level of instructional tasks and the extent of productivity of students thinking. A theoretical model of the levels of problem solving by the students which covers both actual and approximate development zones (L. V. Vygotsky), is suggested. Within the framework of the model four
structurally and functionally different levels of problem solving are shown, basing on two grounds: the extent of novelty and originality (correlation of productive and reproductive processes), and the level of extension of thinking process (interaction of intuitive and discourse processes). Psychological and pedagogical demands to selection of a system of problems for instruction, which arise from analysis of the model, are described in the article.
Masculinity — femininity stereotypes and ‘I-image’ an adolescents
The relation of masculinity — femininity stereotypes depending on sex and ethno demographic characteristics in adolescents and their "I-image" is studied. 289 VIIth- and Xth-graders were examined. The notion of "Majority of Men", "Majority of Women", "I" were evaluated by participants according to "Personality potential" methodics and the results were factorized for three groups; boys, girls and adolescents living in the same district. The differences of stereotypes were due to sex and ethno democratic characteristics of participant and to the notion considered. The instrumentality prevailed in masculinity stereotypes and stereotype perception in boys and the emotionality prevailed in femininity stereotypes and stereotype perception in girls. The peculiarities of "I-image" depending on sex and the degree of sex-role liberty in different ethno demographic situations are described.
Individual communication in the collective play-and subject activity
E. I. Mastvilisker
The author describes operations which characterize an individual communication style depending on interpersonal interaction activity types. Three types of interpersonal interaction — cooperation, rivalry and domination-subordination are related to the information exchange style (according to Hull), different levels of individual properties, the status, the temperament and the cognitive style. The degree of obviousness of stylistic peculiarities of the communication operations depends on the intensity in the diade. The influence of the individual communication style on the stability of the style of individual activity was researched. The stadility of the operational activity structure depends on the opportunity for the display of the initiative, which is determined by the type of interaction in the diade.
Influence of a student's appearance self-appraisal on personal contacts with other people
There is a correlation of high enough degree of one's appearance and general self-appraisal of a person. The influence of self-appraisal (high, mean and low level) upon value orientation, preferable kinds of activity and partners' choice is considered.
Teacher' s professional training and problems of motivation forming and action control
D. Vanek, F. Man
A summary of action control concept in its connection to educational process is given. The learning situations when volitional action control is necessary and the volitional action regulation categories are considered.
Psychodiagnostic function of a teacher: the ways of realization
Yu. Z. Gilboukh
The author substantiates the notion of duality in school psychological service organization: the emergence of school psychologists corps is the first side of it and the performance of psychodiagnostic function by a teacher is the second one, no less important. Methodical prerequisites for the dual problem solution are analyzed and the importance of methodological factor is stressed.
Special features of Russian language mastering by Moldavian schoolchildren
L. N. Trofaila
The new course of Russian language for Moldavian schools, its peculiarities and consequent requirements of schoolchildren' mental activity are discussed. The results of a study show the correctness of the following hypothesis: purposeful forming of Russian language data comprehension methods in 6 year old Moldavian schoolchildren guarantees its theoretical comprehension and gives them a chance to master conversational and written communication.
As a result of teaching programmes, and text books, analysis and of observation of punctuation skills forming process it was discovered that teaching Russian to Uzbeck schoolchildren was based upon easily grasped separate signs—''reference-points" — conjunctions and similar grammatical forms. It was stated that such a method was psychological reason of Uzbeck schoolchildren's punctuation errors and was not resulting in purposeful forming of grammatical skills.
Formation of language construction by Azerbaijanian schoolchildren when mastering Russian
A. A. Guliev
Higher effectiveness of studying Russian by non-Russian-speaking schoolchildren can be achieved by proposed method of training representing psychologically sound system of tasks. It ensures the forming of speech skills corresponding with theoretical knowledge about language. The merit of this method lies in the fact that a sentence is considered as the main unit and grammatical rules are used for language structural units treatment in order to construct and spell Russian expressions.
Is there a need in school sports lessons: psychologist's viewpoint
N. P. Lokalova
Author's purpose is to change widespread teachers', students', and their parents' view on sports lessons at school as unimportant. It is shown that beside health benefits and physical development sports lessons at school activate different psychological processes and promote psychomotor development.
S. L. Rubinstein's doctrine and the problems of pedagogical practice
I. A. Ilnitskaya
Some constructive ideas contained in S. L. Rubinstein's scientific heritage, which can be used in Soviet school restructuring, are analized. In particular, his humanistic attitude towards personality is described. Contrary to prevailing tendencies of the time, S. L. Rubinstein studied the creative essence of a person as of a subject and not of a "screw". S. L. Rubinstein considered the principles of creative independent action, cooperation of a teacher and a pupil, individualization of teaching to be the foundation of educational system. He contended against erroneous views of some scientists and teachers of correlation between education and development, which resulted, in his opinion, in the loss of the notion of education.
On uniqeness of human personality
G. S. Tarasov
The article considers various aspects of the unique human personality: motivation, abilities, self-consciousness, attitudes, and temper. Dialectics of equatity and contradiction between personality and psychological individuality are shown.
Concerning correctness of critics, professional author's (editor's) ethics and quolity of chapter "Collective" in "General Psychology" tex-book
R. S. Nemov
Critical analysis of "General Psychology" tex-book for students — future teachers — is given. By way of illustration necessary alterations (due to present day new way of thinking, democratization and glasnost') of the chapter "Collective" of this tex-book (ed. A. V. Petrovskiy) are proposed. Special attention is paid to the need of more careful study of modern foreign psychology and its adequate reflection in psychological tex-books and curricula.
Concerning ethics, and not only professional one
A. V. Petrovskiy
This article is an answer to R. S. Nemov's critical analysis of "General Psychology" tex-book's chapter "Collective". It is shown that R. S. Nemov's present position refutes the main content of his own articles and the thesis for Doctor's degree based on stratometric concept. There is no attempt on R. S. Nemov's part to critisize his own views stated in those publications if he considers them untrue now.
The display of medical personnel's attitude to mental patients in a rehabilitation ward
G. V. Burckovskiy
The nurse's attitude to the patients of psychiatric clinic was experimentally studied. The nurse's
expression was shown to depend on her abilities to be impressed. The display of nurse's attitude to patients was connected with her willingness to deal with differently diagnosed ones and with patient’s willingness to contact nurses.
Individual psychological quolities of partners in cooperation for problems' solving
T. G. Khaschenko
The comparison of data on cooperation between preschoolers and between adults with neuroses when solving reflective problems is conducted. It is shown that typical for a person activity in frustrating situations is a condition for intellectual cooperation. Such an activity in senior preschoolers increases as a result of reflective problems' solving cooperation and depends on leader's participation. Adults with neuroses were verbally aggressive towards partners and experimenter and tried to avoid joint problem solving.
Determination of value orientation unity and of group development level by selective method
N. I. Shevandrin
Selective method of development of interpersonal relations evaluation is shown to be more effective compared to those using only integral characteristics of value reference likeness for all the participants of a study. The notion of "stand opposition grating" may be generalized for different strata of intergroup activity. The application of "grating" principle for diagnostics and the use of psychosemantic methods enables one to discern and to quantitatively and qualitatively study structural components of value-reference unity as a phenomenon and a determinant.
Concerning the shape of auditory space
N. N. Korzch, U. P. Leonov
Elliptic nature of auditory space is shown by means of auditory differentiation. It is supposed to reflect the universal characteristics of subjective space. The shape of elliptic auditory space may depend on individual and personal peculiarities of person's activity when identifying auditory signals.
Unfinished sentences' method in person's relations study
V. G. Kazachkova
The new study of B. 1. Dodonov's method of unfinished sentences for emotions' classification is presented. Emotional and cognitive components of relations are evaluated. Wide range of persona] and intellectual quolities of examined students are determined by means of this method. Its usefulness for psychological practice is shown.
The development of child's causality concept
Ye. V. Soubbotskiy
There are three lines in the study of the development of child's causality concept. The first of them deals with child's perception of formal characteristics of causal relation between events — temporal and spation correlations of cause and effect. The second one investigates child's animistic notions about the universe revealing in verbal and practical manner. The third line aims at the study of child's ability to perceive and make out the reasons of a person's behaviour. Special attention is paid to the study of causality concept in infants showing their "early competence" in perception of causal relations.