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STRUCTURAL-DVNAMIC MODEL OF SELF-ESTEEM

A. V. Zakharova

Developed by the author psychological conception of self-esteem, as a system education is presented; its structural-dynamic model is suggested, which covers all the variety of its kinds, forms and level representations, included in different systems of self-regulation. It is shown on the basis of the materials gathered in the course of a long research, that self-esteem is a universal mechanism of self-regulation in the formation of different aspects of the psychology and the development of the personality of a child.

PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF THE AESTHETIC EDUCATION AND THE ARTISTIC CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOLCHILDREN

A. A. Melik-Pashayev

The article presents an original conception of the aesthetic upbringing, which is regarded not as the development of particular trades and gifts, but as the becoming of the integral personality under the influence of the aesthetic experience. The attention is mainly paid to the development of the special ("aesthetic"') attitude towards the reality, which is characterized by experiencing the non-utilitarian value of life and personal involvement in the surrounding world. This attitude is considered, on one hand, as the main term of the development of the artistic-creative abilities. It is shown, that 7-8-years-old children possess prerequisites for the aesthetic and artistic development, which die away with most of the people under the conditions of the present way of teaching, but may develop successfully, adequate teaching methods provided.

The artistic education restructuring is regarded as the first stage of the school humanization as a whole.

 

THE ARTISTIC EDUCATION AND AESTETIC UPBRINGING

V. S. Sobkin, V. A. Levin

The present state of the aesthetic education in our country is critically evaluated in the article. The necessity of changing the existing state of affairs in this sphere of education and upbringing is proved. Principles of the artistic education conception are formulated.

PSYCHOLOGICAL AID TO THE CHILDREN RAISED IN THE BOARDING-SCHOOL

V. S. Moukhina

Psychological problems of the children raised in the institutions of a boarding-school type are analysed. They are orphans, children from- the problem families and children belonging to minor nationalities of the North, whose parents by virtue of their traditional activities (hunting, deer-breeding etc.) have to leave their children in the villages. The deprivation of parental custody results in the situation of emotional troubles and in the formation of the feeling of estrangement in a child. The description of the emotional state of children deprived of parental custody and recommendations concerning their rehabilitation are given.

THE KINDERGARTEN AND THE PRIMARY SCHOOL: THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT OF CONTINUITY

A. B. Nikolayeva

The article s devoted to the problems of continuity in the work of the kindergarten and the primary school and to the consideration of the processes taking place at the junction of these two inseparable jinks of the public education.

 

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An urgent necessity exists to consider the figure of a teacher in the kindergarten and in the primary school with definition of the general and of the special in the influence made on the child and in the contents of the activity and of the role functions with the purpose of eliminating the gap existing between the kindergarten and the school.

YOING DELINQUENTS SELF-ESTEEM

G. K. Valitskas, Yu. B. Gippenreyter

A research of the self-esteem of 160 young delinquents (male and female) aged 1416 compared with the selfesteem of law-abiding adolescents was made with the help of a set of methods, clinical interviews and studies of the biography materials. The confirmation of the hypothesis was received, according to which one of the motives of re-orientation of adolescents towards the anti-social way of development was the desire to increase their self-esteem, the level of which happened to be low due to the social disadaptation of children.

MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN: DIFFERENTIATION AND DIAGNOSTICS

L. I. Peresleni, E. M. Mastyukova

Nearly 50 % of unsuccessful schoolchildren are mentally retarded. A differentiation into two groups uniform for the clinical-psychological and psychological-pedagogical description of mental retardation is suggested. The first group includes children with unformed processes of the spontaneous activity forms. The second group includes children with insufficiency of perceptive memorizing processes as the dominant factor in the structure of mental deviations. A set of three methods tested on the junior schoolchildren representative samplings is suggested.

THE ESTIMATION OF DIDACTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTRUCTIONAL COURSES IN THE AUTOMATED INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM THE MENTOR

T. N. Brousentsova

One of the ways of the estimation of didactic effectiveness of the courses, designed for the use under the conditions of computerized teaching, is presented in the article. The possibilities of using the "Minimum BASIC" course within the framework of "The Mentor" automated instructional system for the experimental training of the 9-th form students were studied. The testis were offered a questionnaire prior to the beginning of the course and after its completion. Its purpose was to identify their attitude towards computerized learning and studying programming languages and towards comparative difficulties of the course sections and the course as, a whole. The computer registrated the process of each student's work (all the tasks assigned and ait the mistakes made), and the experimenter registrated the students' questions. The comparison of opinions, students' questions and the computer processed protocol date served as the basis for identifying the course sect ons, which did not correspond to the students' cognitive development level. The article gives recommendations concerning the improvement of the "Minimum BASIC" course.

THE EXPERIENCE OF TEACHING PROGRAMMING AT SCHOOL

A. V. Vartanov, V. K. Zhudov, M. N. Kiosa, E. N. Sokolov

The experimental training of senior schoolchildren in programming allowed to form with them self-education and collective computer work skills.

STATUS PSYCHOTHERAPY AS THE METHOD OF CORRECTION OF THE CHILDS STATUS IN THE KINDERGARTEN GROUP

T. V. Senko

The possibilities of correction of the status of a child in the group were examined with the help of the status psychotherapy method. The concrete examples of the positive influence of transferring children to another group, of the kindergarten are given. The reason for this transfer was unfavourable and superfavourable situation in the group, which influenced negatively the children's personality formation and required correction.

HARMONY AND CREATIVE WORK

A. I. Kolkov

The conception of the unity of harmony and creative work is outlined in the article. The methodics basis of the article is the organizational-entropy transition, on the basis of which the entropic-harmony standard (ideal) is determined. The article gives the experimental and theoretical material illustrating the unity of creative processes in nature and in the society. A set of methods and entropic-harmony series of a musical, poetic and some other kinds of the artistic creative work are listed.

A CONCEPT OF ADAPTATION AND ITS SIGNIFICANSE FOR THE PSYCHOLOGY OF AN INDIVIDUAL

G. A. Ball

The principle is substantiated, that the concept of adaptation can play positive role in the psychological knowledge, if it is interpreted not in the narrow sense (as the adaptation to the environ-

 

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ment), but in the wide sense, as the unity of mutually dependent opposite processes of balancing the relationship of an individual with the environment (accomodation and assimilation according to Piaget). The consideration of such processes at different interacting with each other levels contributes to the deterministic explanation of the processes of functioning and development of an individual.

DYNAMICS OF FORMATION PROCESS OF THE AUDIO-SPEECH FUNCTION ASYMMETRY IN ADOLESCENTS

V. V. Souvorova

The domination of non-typical (right-hemispherial and bihemispherial) lateralization of auditory-speech functions was found during longitudinal researches of the 13- and 14-years-old adolescents from one Moscow school class. The right hemisphere domination in speech is linked with the development of the conceptional thinking and is considered as the special age feature of children, which is characteristic of their puberty period of the ontogenesis.

COMPLICATED COLOUR IMAGES IDENTIFICATION AND THE FUNCTIONAL BRAIN ASSYMETRY

N. M. Nikolayenko, T. V. Chernigovskaya

The data concerning the research of the perception of the picture of different states of weather and of time of the day (on the material of works of painting) have been received during momentary suppression of the functions of one of the brain hemispheres. It has been stated that the right hemisphere provides for the isomorphic reflection of objects and of the surrounding world. The left hemisphere introduces the identified image into generalised phenomena classes and provides for comprehending logical situations.

THE MANIFESTATION OF INDIVIDUAL EMOTIONAL DIFFERENCES IN THE EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION CONTROL FUNCTIONS

I. A Pereverzeva

It has been established that individual emotionality difference (the quality of the dominant experience) manifests itself in the function of control over the emotional expression. The higher degree of control over both negative and positive emotions expression was found with the people having trends towards the experiencing of negative emotions.

 

THE PERCEPTION E EMOTIONAL STATE OF MAN ACORDING TO THE INTONATION PATTERN OF SPEECH

A. A. Borisova

The purpose of the research was the experimental testing of the emotional state of the speaker according to his intonation in the situation:

1) when the text has great informativeness and when there is maximum correspondence of the voice intonation to the content of the text;

2) when the intonation pattern of speech contains nearly all the information.

The results of the experiment showed, that:

a) to define the emotional state of man is a difficult task and, b) it depends on the individual experience of man, c) the emotional state of joy can be determined quicker than other states, d) special instruction in adequate perception of emotional states according to the intonation is necessary.

SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE ADOLESCENT ATTITUDE TOWARDS FASHION

E. Y. Novikova

The author discusses socio-psychological aspects of the functioning of the consumption object in the society. A conclusion is made on the basis of the results of the experiments, that sociological properties of the object of consumption are dominant as related to the strictly utilitarian properties within the social perception structure. The type of orientation towards fashion depends on the stage of the socio-psychological development of an individual: the perception of the "multiplication" prevails at the adaptation stage, the acception of the ready pattern with its partial individual modification prevails at the individualization stage, and an independent design based on general characteristics of the offered consumption object samples prevails at the integration stage. The spiritual values, which are dominant in the perception and retranslated via the object of consumption, have their specific form of the psychological presentation at the level of the personal implication.

THE METHOD OF IDENTIFYING AND ESTIMATING THE LEVEL OF THE SENIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN OPERATIVE THINKING DEVELOPMENT

K. E. Yaschishin

An automated method of diagnosing professionally significant mental properties of the students choosing the profession of a driver has been developed. The test consists of the series of

 

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the problem tasks ("The Effective Shortcut" type), the successful solving of which is determined by the student's ability to correctly analyze conditional situations, to quikly make a decision and to implement it under the conditions of stress. The method is standardized. The estimation scale of the senior schoolchildren operative thinking development level is given in the article.

MEASURING OF THE ATTENTION REDIRECTABILITY IN THE SENSOMOTOR ACTIVITY

V. I. Stepansky, G. S. Prygin

A new set of methods for measuring redirectability is developed, which is characterized by the simplicity of the examination and of the results processing. The set of methods is implemented with the help of a video game computer in the form of a competition of the person under examination with oneself, which allows to achieve a high degree of involvement in the activity. The attention redirectability coefficient and the stability index of this quality are counted according to the results of the testing. The validity of the given testing is substantiated theoretically and proved practically.

THE METHOD OF THE ORGANIZATION OF THE LEARNING ACTIVITY WHILE USING A COMPUTER

A. G. Krytsky

The article is devoted to the research of possibilities of using a computer network for the organization of interaction of an adult and children and of children themselves by setting in the system the concepts of the kinematics. A method of organizing the group interactions and indirect computer usage is developed on the basis of this factual material. The technology of interactions is given. The data concerning computer functions in the process of communication of the pupils during the joint solving of the learning tasks are presented. The problem of the computer modeling of the learning activity methods is set.

PROGRAMS FOR SURMOUNTING BAD HABITS IN USA SCHOOLCHILDREN

V. S. Khomik

A survey of methods of anti-drug education of the schoolchildren of the 112th forms developed in the USA within the framework of "Here's looking at you, 2000" programme, is presented in the article. The scientifically substantiated preventive tactics is considered, which is aimed at the understanding by the students physiological and socio-psychological consequences of the drug use, the formation of strong self-respect in every student, the mature life time experiencing. It is shown, that risk factors of students being involved in the use of narcotics will decrease with strengthening of their bonding to school and family, working out the skills of mutually supportive interpersonal relations, stopping enabling the drug use, developing the ability of making friends and, acquiring refusal skills in provocative situations.

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL HERITAGE OF L. S. VYGOTSKY IN WESTERN EUROPE

O. M. Toutounjan

In Western Europe, as in USA, the psychological heritage of L. S. Vygotsky is getting more and more recognition as of greatest importance for the development of modern psychology in its most fundamental theoretical and practical issues. Western European psychologists despite their different theoretical and methodological views and despite their sometimes critical remarks on Vygotsky speak of him as of a reformer in our science, even of a rare genius equal to Piaget. Wide spreading of his views, growth of the number of translations of his works are evidence not only of his present influence on psychological thought but also of the prospects of ever growing influence of Vygotsky in the future.