PROBLEM OF SUBJECTIVITY IN THE LIGHT OF PRESENT-DAY ISSUES IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION
V. E. Tchoudnovskiy
The article deals with the problem of man's inner subjective world regarded as a specific integral unity which is both the product and the producer of external forces. Some factors are presented responsible for appearance of the "core of the subjectivity", as well as environmental and age circumstances instrumental in development of the subjectivity. Individual style of activity is understood by the author as a wider notion than is conventionally accepted and as a manifestation of the subjectivity. The notion of the "small environment" is introduced to describe man's inner subjective world. In conclusion the notion of the subjectivity is related to some urgent problems in the field of practical education.
COMMUNICATION AS CREATIVITY AND A VALUE
M. S. Kagan, A. M. Etkind
Theoretical aspects of the "subject — subject" interaction are discussed, and in particular such separate forms of it as control, servicing, informational and interpersonal communication; corresponding motivation is analyzed. The notion of intrinsive motivation is introduced and substantiated as the basic motivational mechanism of communication.
PSYCHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE IMAGE OF THE WORLD, AND THE NEW THINKING
V. V. Stolin, A. P. Naminatch
Experimental study of the basic categorial structure of the image of the social reality is reported. Existence of a hypothesized by the authors deep-seated structure of the image of the world, common to the whole of mankind and independent of the national origin, culture, and political convictions, has been confirmed. A modified semantic differential procedure was used; as objects for scaling photographs documenting social objects and phenomena in the USSR and in Western countries were adopted.
SYSTEMATIC STUDIES OF THE ANTICIPATION IN THE STRUCTURE OF INDIVIDUALITY
T. F. Basilevitch
Brain potentials corresponding to the anticipation in the psychophysiological structure of motor acts have been experimentally studied. It is shown that anticipation, traditionally regarded as a taxonomic unit in the system of psychological phenomena, can be described as a functional organ of activity which develops as a result of interaction of neuronal activities fixing the past (ge-notypic pre-systems), the present (collating the prognosis with the reality), and the future (representation of the goal-object). Corresponding classification of form of anticipation is provided.
DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS IN THE ATTITUDE OF 6-YEAR-OLDS TO TASKS ASSIGNED TO THEM BY ADULTS
A. L. Venger, K. N. Polivanova
A new diagnostical procedure based on manipulation of relations between subjects and the experimenter is suggested (the principal diagnostical indicator being the correlation of results shown by a child / subject in the presence and in the absence of the adult / experimenter). Four types of the attitude of the 6-7-year-old children to the assignment given by the adult have been revealed: "pre-school type" (free changing of the given rule, deviating from the given sample), "pre-learning" (changing of the rule when the adult is absent but strict obeying in his presence), "learning in the proper sense of the world" (strict observing the rule in the absence of the adult), pseudo-learning (orientation in the presence of the adult to a particular sample and not to a general rule, while paying no definite attention either to the sample, or to the rule in his absence).
SELF-REGULATION OF UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL AGE
G. D. Tchistyakova
Development of the structure of understanding in the school age has been studied. As shown, acquisition by schoolchildren of a new material depends not only on its comprehensibility, but also on availability of a mature structure of the process of understanding — in particular of such components as the ability for research and seeing the whole, the capacity for regulation on the part of the reflectivity mechanism. Dynamics of the above structure and of its components in the school age, corresponding developments in the system of acquired knowledge, are outlined.
FUNCTIONS OF THE SENSE OF LANGUAGE IN THE PROCESS OF SOLVING SEMANTIC-SYNTACTIC PROBLEMS BY SCHOOLCHILDREN
Ye. D. Bozhovitch
Some contentious problems concerning the nature, functions, and phenomenology of the so-
called sense of language are discussed. Conditions which necessarily require engagement by schoolchildren of the intuitive components in order to find solution of the instructional problems in the native (Russian) language have been determined. Experiments reveal that the sense of language performs the function of anticipation in the process of solving semantic-syntactic problems which require isolation of non-formal signs in a syntactic construction and also execution of some non-formal operations needed in order to transform the construction. Recommendations are given concerning introduction of corrections into the course on syntaxis for the general secondary school.
ACTIVITY OF SELF-COMPREHENSION IN SCHOOLCHILDREN SOLVING INTELLECTUAL PROBLEMS
Ya. V. Sharaga
Self-comprehension by senior schoolchildren engaged in the process of solving intellectual problems has been studied by means of a projective procedure specially designed for the purpose (a group of experts estimated "the direction of thought" in photographic portraits). A complex net of interrelations between self-appraisal and self-comprehension processes has been established. A conclusion is made that self-comprehension is in important component of the cognitive activity of schoolchildren engaged in solution of intellectual problems.
A STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE MOTIVATIONAL COMPONENT OF AN ACTIVITY
N. V. Yelfimova
Functional components of the motivational structure of activities connected with development of mental operations are discussed on the basis of both theoretical assumptions and experimental data. It is shown that the functional components can be singled out by means of diagnostical procedures of a clinical type administered directly in the process of shaping the components. A method is described of producing the motivational components of activities connected with development of new mental operations.
GIFTED AND TALENTED CHILDREN
Practice of educational work with gifted children and corresponding research performed by Soviet psychologists is briefly outlined. It is followed by a short review of studies concerned with the psychology of talent and giftedness in the USA. Then summaries of principal reports delivered at the VII International conference on education of gifted and talented children are presented. The report is concluded with technical information about the World Council on gifted an talented children. Draft treaty of cooperation between the USSR Academy of Pedagogical Science and the Council in supplemented.
EARLY SIGNS OF GIFTEDNESS
N. S. Leites
Three groups of pupils have been established: with accelerated mental development, with early mental specialization, with isolated signs of outstanding abilities. Gifted children are described along the following lines: mental activity and self-regulation, the general and the specific in abilities, age peculiarities, natural endowments. Particular attention is given to the difficult problems of predicting further development of gifts.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF DESIGNING THE TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF ACTIVITY AND THE PROBLEM OF TEACHING METHODS OF EFFICIENT WORK
G. Z. Bedniy
The concept of "temporary structure of activity" is presented and discussed. It is shown that to design an activity means not only to organize in time its consecutive motor components but, and this is most important, it requires understanding of its cognitive structure, of the distribution in time of strategies of their realization. The study makes it possible to take into account the dynamics of transformation of the temporal structure of activity accompanying the process of improvement of the corresponding skill and thus to select an appropriate, at the given stage, variant of dealing with the instructional assignment.
EXPERIENCE AND PROBLEMS OF INCREASING PSYCHOLOGICAL COMPETENCE OF TEACHERS
A. D. Alfiorov
Practical experience of the author reported in the article allows him to state that teachers of Rostov Oblast (region) are not yet "natural psychologists", although there are positive trends in this respect. In order to help the teachers to increase their professional and psychological competence there has been organized in Rostov Oblast a voluntary psychological service. Its structure and basic lines of activities are described as well as forms and methods of introducing psychological knowledge into the life of the school, and of conducting corrective work with schoolchildren.
A. S. MAKARENKO AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONALITY
V. F. Morgoun
Pedagogical heritage left by an outstanding Soviet pedagogue A. S. Makarenko is still topical at present. Makarenko's concept of moulding the personality developed along the lines of Marxist philosophy has been subjected by the author to a psychological analysis, particularly with the view to check on the material of Makarenko's creative work correctness of the concept of multidimensional development of personality earlier suggested by the author. The following personality development invariants have been identified: spatial-temporal orientation, need-volitional experience, goal-directedness, level of acquisition, form of activity realization.
TIME FACTOR AND THE NATURE OF TEMPERAMENT
B. I. Tsoukanov
Proceeding from description of the "T-type" (subjective perceptual unit of time) the author demonstrates the linear arrangement of typological groups in human population. This arrangement corresponds to the classical classification of temperaments introduced by Hippocrates. A new psychological meaning is attached to the notion of the "pure type"; an attempt is made to prove that besides the four classical types (sanguine, melancholic, choleric, and phlegmatic) there exists the fifth pure type — "equipoised".
STRUCTURE OF INFORMATION ABOUT A PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE
A. Yu. Teriokhina
Methods of multidimensional scaling have been used for representing the conceptual structure of a programming language (FORTRAN). It is shown how a system of principal concepts can be represented in the form of a geometric body based on independent items. Such representation makes it possible to easily analyse the structure of knowledge, to test and translate the latter, and to follow its dynamics. Another practical output of the study is the possibility of purposeful construction of new informational structures.
ATTITUDE AS A DECISION-MAKING FACTOR FOR A PERSON IN A GROUP
M. A. Tsiskaridze
Group as a factor which can reveal disposition of a person for conformity has been studied with two different kinds of the attitude on the part of the person to the experimental situation: in one case the subject was oriented toward guessing randomly presented stimuli (situation called "imitation"), in the other — toward "the play with an opponent" ("conflict"). Three dummies and one naive subject participated in every experimental situation. Two behavior groups have been revealed: 1) dependent (conforming) subjects whose decisions were made under the influence of the group, 2) independent subjects who made decisions irrespective of others present. It has been also found that the more uncertain the situation is the more dependent are the subjects. In the "imitation" situation dependence was higher than in "conflict".
PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF MUSICALLY GIFTED ADOLESCENTS
L. A. Liovotchkina
Specificity of the nervous system in persons with outstanding musical endowment, and especially — correlation of particular components of the gift with such properties of the nervous system as strength, lability, and activatedness have been experimentally studied. It has been -established that weakness and high sensitivity of the nervous system are important pre-requisites of the high level of musical achievements. Role and structural place of other properties are also described and discussed.
ROLE OF EMPATHY IN PERCEPTION AND IN CREATION OF ART
N. B. Berkhin
Experiments performed with schoolchildren of different age (members of a literature circle) show that meeting with a piece of art mustnot be reduced to its comprehension or assessment on the part of the perceiving person (child); this event directly transforms the behavior of the perceiver. At the basis of the transformation phenomenon an interaction of two emotions can always be found: empathy with the piece of art and empathy with oneself.
HISTORY AND GOALS OF THE HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY
History and causes of appearance of the humanistic psychology, its connections with other branches of psychology, present issues and results of the research already performed, are presented in detail. Information about cooperation between Soviet and American psychologists in the field of humanistic psychology is given.