SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ACTIVATING THE HUMAN FACTOR
G. M. Andreyeva
Some social-psychological means of making more active the human factor are considered. A methodological basis for the study of different aspects of the innovation process, and of the social justice is suggested. Contradictions in development of the human factor at the present-day stage of development of the Soviet society are outlined, as well as the goals to be pursued by applied psychologists in order to overcome these contradictions.
MENTAL IMAGERY IN VOCATIONAL INSTRUCTION
V. A. Ponomaryenko, S. V. Alioshin, A. A. Vorona
Some applied and fundamental problems of development and functioning of mental images in professionals are discussed on the example of teaching the flight personnel. It has been experimentally proved that purposeful development of mechanisms of activity control through mental images results in reduction of the time and capital spent on preparation of professional workers, as well as in increased quality and reliability of their performance.
SUBJECT-DIALOGICAL REFLECTIVITY AS A FACTOR IN MORAL-MOTIVATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCHOOLCHILD
A. I. Lipkina
A new form of reflective thinking (dialogical reflection concerning the subject-matter) has been used as a teaching method in labour education. The method is instrumental in bringing forth and changing corresponding motivational and cognitive attitudes in pupils to results of their labour. Three basic levels of the above reflective ability have been revealed; particular manifestations of thinking at these levels depending on age and learning experience are presented.
SPECIFICITY OF SELF-ESTIMATION IN SENIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN AS DEVELOPED IN MASTERING METHODS OF LEARNING
M. A. Reznitchenko
Mastery of means and methods of learning results in transformation of characteristics of self-estimation, in its becoming more adequate; while more mature self-estimation structure stimulates, in its turn, the process of learning and its efficiency, thus activating the cognitive activity of the subject. Understanding the contents of the self-estimation process makes it possible therefore to purposefully control its developmental dynamics.
CORRELATION BETWEEN PERSONALITY AND THE LEVEL OF GOAL CONTROL OF ACTIVITY IN PRE-SCHOOLERS
I. B. Daunis
As has been experimentally proved in pre-schoolers the goal of practical activity does not directly determine the structure of the development of this activity: the process can be understood only in terms of a more general formation — the subject's personality. Characteristics of the goal-directed activity, reflective thinking, and need-motivational sphere have been shown to be deeply intercorrelated and determined to a certain extent by specific value orientations of the subject. Some of the latter (e. g. cognitive or learning orientation) promote goal-controlled forms of behavior, while others (e. g. play orientation) consolidate situational behavior. Personality characteristics must therefore be taken into account in educational work with pre-schoolers.
MNEMONIC ABILITIES AND ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE IN SCHOOL
S. A. Iziumova
Memory as a component of man's general abilities is assumed to have a hierarchical structure; some levels at that represent rather a "pure" imprinting capacity while others pertain to meaningful procession of information. It has been experimentally shown that both kinds of mnemonic ability are needed for efficient learning, and differences between good and poor pupils must not be reduced to differences in the memory for meaningful information. However specific proportion of the two varies depending on a particular subject to be learned.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF PREPARING A TEACHER FOR COLLECTIVE WORK
V. A. Slastenin, N. V. Tamarina
The whole present-day system of preparing the students of pedagogical institutes for future professional work is analyzed. The accent is made on psychological aspects of the preparation of them for work within a teacher' collective. A potential technology of such preparation is discussed proceeding from the data found by the authors in their own experiments and in corresponding literature.
SURMOUNTING OF POSSIBLE CONFLICTS DURING THE LESSON BETWEEN THE TEACHER AND THE CLASS
I. M. Verenikina
One of the basic causes of the conflict between the teacher and the class resides in the fact that teachers too often see their primary task in the classroom in the delivery of the instructional material and do not pay sufficient attention to the business of building up the structure of mutual understanding. Thus whenever there occurs a conflict the teacher tends to interprete it as a manifestation of the pupils' indiscipline. The author provides a procedure for analysis of such conflicts which may help the teacher to conceptualize corresponding problems and issues, to overcome negative attitude to the conflict as such, understand its possible causes and meanings, to see its diagnostical and constructive value.
URGENT PROBLEMS IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ABILITIES
V. E. Сhudnovsky
Approaches to the problem of abilities which exist in the Soviet psychology are analytically reviewed, and a perspective for further research in this field is suggested. Among the central issues dealt with in the article: individual differences and age prerequisites of abilities; role of natural endowments and particularly of formal-dynamic properties in development of content, experiential aspects of individual performance; personality approach to the study of abilities (purposeful development of a particular personality structure as a means of developing required abilities). In connection with the last issue the author provides some results obtained in studies performed in his Scientific Research Institute.
PROBLEMS OF CATEGORIZATION: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS
A. I. Rozov
Categorization must not be identified with classification. The author defines it as an arrangement of both present in and entering into the subject information on every cognitive level. Two descriptive notions are introduced for analytical purposes: "categorical system", and "sets of unintersecting (discernible by the subject) classes". Such sets may be viewed by the subject as either incomplete (allowing inclusion of additional classes) or complete. Viewing sets as complete may hinder for the subject opening of new possibilities when making a decision or solving a problem. Creative attitude towards established categorical systems and sets as well as corresponding transformation of them provide for adequate categorization. The suggested approach sheds light on certain well-known facts, among them — the phenomenon of comprehension. Some pedagogical implications are considered.
ON PRECISION IN DEFINITION OF NOTIONS
K. K. Gomoyunov
As is shown by the author school textbooks abound with inaccurate definitions of notions. Some formal causes of the most typical of them are discussed, and ways to make them more adequate are presented. The article is concluded with a list of questions which have to be answered in order to raise the general culture of thinking.
REPRESENTATION OF REAL AND IMAGINARY SPACE
B. M. Velitchkovskiy,
Proceeding from the data found in scientific literature and works of fiction, and from their own experiments the authors speculate on possible mechanisms of mental representation of spatial information. Cognitive maps are considered in terms of cognitive, perceptual, and thinking processes. Language means relevant to the control over development and unfolding of mental spatial imagery are also discussed.
CONCERNING THE STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF THE TYPE OF TEMPERAMENT ON EFFICIENCY OF INDIVIDUAL AND COMMON ACTIVITY
V. V. Belous
Proceeding from the principle of unity of the mind and activity established in the Soviet
psychology an attempt has been made to ground basic lines in the elaboration of the problem of unity of temperament and activity. They are: temperament in the system of mental activity; temperament and peculiarities of social activity of an individual; temperament and efficiency of common activity and of communication.
PECULIARITIES OF FITNESS FOR WORK UNDER CONDITIONS OF MONOTONY
L. P. Stepanova, V. I. Rozhdestvenskaya
Correlations between objective and subjective indices of the fitness for work obtained under experimental working conditions have proved the hypothesis that there exist two types of monotony. To eliminate the first type it is necessary to change the very process of work; while the second one, deprivation monotony, can be eliminated by minor changes in the immediate environment irrelevant to the process of work as such.
PSYCHOSEMANTIC METHODS OF DESCRIBING A PROFESSION
Ye. Yu. Artemiyeva, Yu. G. Vyatkin
The way a person ascribes semantical properties to real-life objects is suggested as an indicator of vocational disposition and of the degree of vocation acceptance. A procedure of typification of free descriptions of drawings worked out by the authors enabled them to experimentally reveal specific ways of dealing with real-life objects in adolescents taught different professional skills.
SEMANTIC ANAZYSIS OF PROFESSIONAL STEREOTYPES
V. F. Petrenko
Experimental reconstruction of
professional stereotypes, i. e. of those personality
properties which are ascribed to people belonging to particular professions has
been performed. Subjects, students of different departments of the
MECHANISMS OF ADAPTATION TO HIGHLY INTENSIVE STIMULI
E. M. Routman, B. I. Kotchoubei
Habituation of evoked potentials and of autonomic responses to indifferent and unpleasant stimuli has been studied in 86 subjects. It has been found out that the property of unpleasantness as well as manifest defensive reactions significantly change the pattern of habituation. It is suggested that besides a well-known mechanism of habituation leading to a reorganization of "the neural model of the stimulus" there exist another mechanism responsible for changes in subjective qualities of the stimulus corresponding to the already available neural model. This second mechanism becomes activated in some people as a result of unpleasant stimulation which may exert significant influence on the dynamics of a number of psychophysiological responses and on the verbal assessment of the stimulus.
SOCIAL-PERCEPTUAL MECHANISMS OF MUSICAL EXPERIENCE
L. L. Botchkariov
An experimental-psychological study of social-psychological aspects of perception of music has been conducted. By means of a video-technique the same record was presented to listeners in combination with different emotional-expressive behavior of the performer; having created an experimental conflict between visual and auditory information, the author was able to establish the emotional significance of the visual component, to estimate the contribution of the latter into the total music-produced image. The problem of music perception by TV viewers is discussed in sufficient detail; some recommendations are given to performers and producers of musical programmes on the basis of the obtained data. Some individual differences in listeners' estimations of intensive and поп-intensive forms of performers' expressiveness and of emotional content of pieces of music are presented and discussed.
INVOLUNTARY AND VOLUNTARY MEMORIZATION OF MEANINGFUL MATERIAL BY SENIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN
A. N. Shlytchkova
New experimental data specifying elaborated in Soviet psychology principles concerning correlation between the above two kinds of memorization and their place in a system of learning activities are presented.