SOME PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF PREPARING THE YOUTH R LABOUR AND FOR SELECTION OF A PROFESSION
Ye. A. Klimov
The article is based on the author's reports at the general meeting of the USSR Academy of Pedagogical Sciences and at the round-the-table discussion organized by this magazine, and contains the outlines of some principles which are to be used in preparation of the youth for labour and for selection of a profession.
EDUCATIONAL COMMUNICATION AS A SUBJECT-MATTER FOR THEORETICAL AND APPLIED STUDIES
V.A. Kan-Kalik, G. A. Kovaliov
A new theoretical approach to the analysis of the under-developed problem of educational communication in presented. Educational communication is defined as a process of creative interaction between the educator and the educated within which the task of teaching and education is being realized. Proceeding from general-theoretical views of B.G. Ananiev, A.A. Bodaliov, V.N. Miasishchev etc., specified for the purpose I of the given study, the authors suggest a new typology of communication, and analyze comprehensively the psychological structure of the professional-psychological communication as a creative process. The approach described has been used by the authors as a basis in the development of a system of professional-psychological preparation of teachers as subjects of the educational communication (the system widely employs active methods of social learning).
THE PRINCIPLE OF REFLECTION OF SUBJECTNESS IN A PSYCHONOLOGICAL STUDY OF PERSONALITY
Theoretical and methodological aspects of a theory of personalization are dealt with. The latter is centered around a specific aspect in the existence of an individual as a personality — his ideal representation and extension in the life activities of others. In this context the concept of "reflected subjectness" (one's existence in an other and for this other) is introduced and discussed in detail; the concept is further used as a framework for elaboration of the reflected subjectness method (analysis of an individual personality through its representation in the life activity of other people — in their motives, perception etc.). Concrete examples of experimental realization of the method are presented.
SOME PECULIARITIES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN EDUCATED NOT WITHIN A FAMILY.
I.A. Zalusina. E.O. Smirnova
Comparative study of psychological development of 4-6 years old children educated within and not within a family is reported. Peculiarities of communication with adults and with age-peers have been taken as a main index of psychological development. Communication in general has been analyzed in terms of M.I. Lisina's theory of the communication genesis. The study reveals that the two groups of children significantly differ both in the general pattern of behavior and in the way they communicate with adults and age-peers. As a whole pupils of children's homes somewhat fall behind in the development of communication skills — especially in the development of emotional-volitional aspects of the latter. Some recommendations are given as to how to overcome the delay.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PRECONDITIONS OF EFFICIENT JOINED LEARNING IN YOUNGER SCHOOLCHILDREN
V.V. Andriyevskaya, G. A. Ball, Z. G. Kisarchuk, S. A. Mousatov
The authors describe their experimental study carried out with the boarding school pupils of the 3-rd form. The study has shown that the mode of organization of learners' activity influences considerably their mastering the method of the grammar problem solving. The learning work in a dyad turned out to be, on an average, more productive than, the individual one, and the cooperative framework was more favourable comparing with the competitive one. Instructing the cooperating dyad members to perform, respectively, the roles of the executor and of the adviser and controller affected positively the learning process
and results. Teaching the pupils, in advance of the joined work, the methods of job communication has also been found an important factor in raising the level of co-operation and, as a result of it, in the efficiency of their learning activity.
TEACHER IN THE SYSTEM OF A SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICE
A.D. Alfiorov, Ye.A. Lougovoy
Practical experience of organizing a system of psychological help to pupils of a secondary school and to the teachers' personnel without a psychologist on the permanent staff is reported. The authors tell what methodological and organizational help they need from the system of training teachers for the secondary school and from the public education system.
PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL SERVICE AT THE RAION COUNCIL OF PEOPLE'S DEPUTIES
S.G. Shouman, V.P. Shouman
An attempt to develop a comprehensive and socially efficient psychological service is described, as well as a system of psychological, pedagogical, and educational measures needed to be realized for the purpose and actually realized in the process of the reported work.
PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICE IN A TEACHERS' TRAINING HIGH SCHOOL
S.K. Morozov, I.F. Miagkov
Different factors and means active in proper preparation of future teachers for school situations which may require psychological intuition and knowledge have been considered and engaged in a comprehensive psychological service system described by the authors. Particular accent has been made on promotion of psychological self-education and on establishment of the student — teacher and high school — secondary school feedback systems.
AN ATTEMPT AT PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS AND CORRECTION OF CONFLICTING COMMUNICATION WITHIN A FAMILY
Some psychological methods of studying a family and of working with it are outlined; an original procedure of analysis of conflict situations is described. The potential of the procedure is demonstrated through examination of concrete clinical cases. Different components and factors constituting a conflicting interaction are presented and assessed.
EXTRA-NORMATIVE ACTIVITY AS A MANIFESTATION OF AN INDIVIDUAL'S OR A COLLECTIVE'S ACTIVE CIVIC POSITION AND A METHOD TO STUDY IT
The author provides a definition and some theoretical and experimental-diagnostical bases for a study of the extra-normative activity of an individual or a collective presented as a manifestation of their active civic position. Extranormative activity is defined as correspondence of acts, attitudes, and results of a practical activity of the social subject (a collective or an individual) to moral expectations .which though can not be required of him as something he is obliged to perform (officially prescribed, legislated, and — in that sense — normative), but still satisfy certain interests (goals, ideals, values) of the society for the sake of which this activity is being performed. A "working" scheme of basic psychological manifestations of the extranormative activity is suggested, as well as some lines of experimental-diagnostical study of it. The notion of extra-normative activity is correlated with those of responsibility and social activity.
ROLE OF STANDARDS IN PSYCHOPHYSICAL MEASURING
Some psychological regularities of development and functioning of psychological standards under conditions of making estimations are considered. It has been shown that the n-dimensional structure of the psychological standards may not correspond to the n-dimensional structure of physical stimuli which generate them. In a number of cases multidimensional physical stimuli, for example, may generate both multi-dimensional and mono-dimensional psychological standards. Psychometric and psychophysical methods developed on the basis of the theory of standards are characterized by higher reliability and accuracy.
PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICE FOR THE TRADE SYSTEM: PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES
Psychology of commerce as a branch of applied psychology is dealt with. A structure of the Statewide psychological service for the trade system is suggested. A program of research is presented which should contribute to elaboration of an organizational-functional model of such psychological service.
THE UNCONSCIOUS PSYCHOLOGICAL AND THE PARADIGM OF SET IN D. N. UZNADZE'S THEORY
Many supporters of D.N. Uznadze's theory of set describe the set as a mental phenomenon. At the same time it is understood that the set is of unconscious nature. From this point of view therefore the set is the unconscious psychological. In the majority of his scientific works D.N. Uznadze defined the set as an infra-mental sphere of individual activity. It follows from his principal scientific paradigm: unity and integrity of the external and internal, of the subjective and objective, of the physiological and psychological. He was able to overcome the Cartesian dualism and developed a monistic approach to the psychological study of personality. Although in his last work D.N. Uznadze put the sign of equality between the set and psyche, his initial position appears more correct. Only this position makes it possible to overcome the "immediateness postulate" of the traditional psychology.
ANALYSIS OF ITEMS IN CONSTR OF TEST-INVENTORIES: MANUAL AND COMPUTER ALGORITHMS
A.G. Shmeliov, V.I. Pokhilko
The authors provide a review of statistical algorithms used in selection of items when constructing scales. The simplest algorithms which can be used by psychologists in the absence of a computer are described in sufficient detail. Some modifications are suggested which allow to even more simplify the procedure and make it more convenient for a practicing psychologist. Apart from the perspective of using such "manual" algorithms the authors tell the reader that there may appear in the nearest future a computer-based bank of psychodiagnostical data and of psychometric programmes which will make it possible for all psychologists supplying their data to the bank to employ powerful computer algorithms realized on big contemporary computers.
EMOTIONALITY AND SELF-APPRAISAL OF ONE'S OWN ACTIVITY
I. V. Patsyavitehius
Experimental data concerning the relationship between emotionality and self-appraisal of the organization of one's own activities (SAOA) is presented. It is shown that SAOA in subjects differing in the sign of domineering emotions is not adequate. Thus in subjects of emotionally-positive type the SAOA is overestimated, while in subjects of emotionally-negative type — underestimated. The data has been obtained through comparison of the SAOA results with the outcome of real performance.
METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF THE SENSE OF TIME IN MAN
O.N. Kouznetsov, A.I. Aliokhin, T.V. Samokhin
Adequate reflection of real time in man's mind is a necessary pre-condition of his efficient adaptation to the ever changing environment. Differential-psychological peculiarities and maturity of notions of "present, past, and future; quick and slow", as well as the ability to correlate other people and things with one's subjective time, and one's emotional attitude — to the speed of reactions in others,— are connected not only with development of the perceptual sphere, but with the conceptual-intellectual, emotional, and volitional development of one's personality as of a subject of cognition.
MODIFIED RORSCHACH FOR STUDYING DISTURBANCES IN FAMILY INTERACTION
A modification of the Rorschach test (the consensus Rorschach) is described which is used in studies of the structure and dynamics of interactions within a family. Some studies performed with the use of different variants of the consensus Rorschach are presented. The variants are compared and critically assessed.
CONCERNING PSYCHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE NAVIGATOR'S ACTIVITY
Yu.K. Strelkov, K.V. Sizov
Answers given by 20 civil aviation flyers to a questionnaire enable the authors to suggest a model where emotional, cognitive, and executive aspects of the navigator's flight activity are represented as elements of a spatial structure. The study makes it possible to arrange the above aspects in the order of their significance and to understand their functional place in the practical experience of flyers with a long length of service. The data obtained may be of use in preparation of retraining methods for the flying personnel who must shift to the work with highly automated equipment.