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SUMMARIES

 

PSYCHOLOGY Ч TO THE REFORM OF THE SCHOOL

(EDITORIAL)

A. A. Bodaliov, B. F. Lomov, A. M. Matyushkin

The school reform sets before psychologists a number of problems. Successful solution of the first group of them requires systematic application of established psychological laws in organization of the instructional-educational process in general school and in preschool institutions, in the system of vocational training schools. Best results can be achieved if psychologists would work together with pedagogues. The second group of problems concerns definition of particular tasks for the psychological-pedagogical sciences: general laws of psychological development (and especially the age dynamics of cognitive processes), individual psychological differences in childhood, correlation between developmental patterns studied in general and in educational psychology, and in other branches of psychology, etc. The third group of problems can be solved through organization of professional psychological consulting services Ч especially in the fields of vocational orientation of schoolchildren, provision of psychological help and instruction in school and family.

 

PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE STUDY OF MAN'S ACTIVITY

A. I. Krupnov

The author discusses theoretical issues connected with the theory of activity and general approaches to the study of related problems. Results are presented of a study of individual manifestations of man's activity in psycho-motor, intellectual, and volitional spheres, and in communication.

 

BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE THEORY OF COGNITIVE TASKS

G. A. Ball

Some assumptions of the general theory of cognitive tasks are considered in connection with psychological and educational problems. Solution of a cognitive task demands improvement of a particular knowledge possessed by the solver. This improvement consists in ensuring of sufficient completeness (in terms of both the volume and the adequacy) of the information about the object of cognition which constitutes that particular knowledge. The structure of cognitive tasks is described as well as main ways of solving them. A classification of three-component cognitive tasks is given. Results of psychological experiments and some instructional designs are interpreted in the light of the described assumptions.

 

CORRELATION BETWEEN STUDENTS-LEARNING ACTIVITY AND THEIR INDIVIDUAL-TYPOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF SELF-REGULATION

O. A. Konopkin, G. S. Prygin

Psychological contents of the ability for effective independent learning activity is described. The ability is analyzed as a factor of successful learning. A "portable" procedure for differentiation of autonomous and dependent students has been worked out. Some regular correlations between the degree of autonomy and the success in learning, on the one hand, and certain individual-typological peculiarities of self-regulation, on the other, have been established.

 

PROBLEMS OF EMOTIONAL REGULATION OF COMMUNICATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

G. M. Breslav

Possibility of a relation between disturbances in emotional regulation of activity and deviant development of personality in preschool children is discussed. Two types of children with emotional disturbances have been revealed: "vitalists" Ч with minimal social mediation of communication both in play and extraplay activities, and "egocentrics" Ч with the "isolation of Ego" as the leading theme of communication mediation.

 

PERCEPTION AND UNDERSTANDING BY PRESCHOOL CHILDREN OF MEN'S EMOTIONAL STATES

A. M. Shchetinina

Results of an experimental study of peculiarities of perception and understanding by 4-7 year old children of such pictured man's states as joy, sadness, anger, fright, and surprise, are presented. General types and regularities of perception of emotional states, levels of understanding them, and age differences in both processes have been established. An experimental procedure of development in children of the capacity for perception and understanding of emotions, and of development in them of perceptual standards has been elaborated. A control experiment was used in order to prove efficiency of the formative studies and to reveal corresponding changes in the ability to perceive. Social importance of the described issues is shown in the light of the educational tasks set before the Soviet people by the Party and the Government.

 

DYNAMICS OF SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF STUTTERERS' PERSONALITY IN THE PROCESS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY

E. Yu. Raou

Application of a number of methods (Kelly's, Rosenzweig's, Gorbov's gomeostatic procedure,

 

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etc.) for the study of psychological changes in the personality of stutterers made it possible to analyze the dynamics of frustration reactions in the process of rehabilitation of speech communication by means of Dubrovsky Ч Nekrasova procedure. Therapeutic in-group re-education resulted in gradual correction of certain features in the character of stutterers, and in transformation of the attitude to frustrative speech situations.

 

PECULIARITIES OF THE ATTITUDE OF DISADAPTED ADOLESCENTS TO PERSONAL QUALITIES IN OTHERS

V. F. Matveyev, A. V. Lebedev

The paper deals with disturbances in the system of value orientations in disadapted adolescents. Experimental data obtained by the authors shows that there exists direct relation between peculiarities of man's attitude to personal qualities of others and the type of his behavioral pathology. Zondi-type stimulus material is stated to be sufficiently adequate as a means of differentiation of the types of desadaptational reactions in adolescents.

 

LIFE PLANS IN ADOLESCENCE AND YOUTH

N. N. Tolstykh

Comparative analysis of life plans shows that there exist specific changes in the manner of attitude to the future which characterize maturation of personality in early youth as compared with adolescence. Social situation of the personality development is described as an important determinant of the above transition.

 

SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL COMPATIBILITY OF LEADERS OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOLS

R. N. Shakurov, M. G. Rogov

Objective and subjective factors influencing the social-psychological compatibility (SPC) of the leaders of a vocational training school (the head and his assistants) has been studied. SPC is defined as the inter-adaptability of people which manifests itself in their ability to establish good interrelations in the process of common activity. Moral-communicative and business components of SPC have been singled out. Specific requirements to leaders occupying different positions in the system of leadership have been established, and relation between SPC, on the one hand, and efficiency of control over school activity, peculiarities of leadership, individual style of leaders, on the other hand, Ч have been revealed and described.

 

EDUCATION OF SCHOOLCHILDREN ON THE EXAMPLE OF LIFE AND WORK OF V.I. LENIN

N. I. Siomin

Practical experience of education of the rising generation on the example of V. I. Lenin's life and work is presented.

 

PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF FAMILY AND MARITAL CONSULTATION

A. N. Obozova

The author presents basic information concerning the purpose and methods of the psychological consultation as a service. Typical requests of the clients are described and classified, and the data on what the psychologist can and can not do to help them is provided as well.

 

A COMPLEX APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE VIEW OF THE WORLD IN SCHOOLCHILDREN

V. M. Medvedev

Lenin's Central Committee of the CPSU pays special attention to the problem of development of the communist outlook in every Soviet man and especially Ч in school youth. However in real school practice it happens that the view of the world is being developed in the context of particular subjects. As a result the pupils fail to develop a unified view of the world as a whole.

The author's aim was to reveal how a total scientific Weltanschauung can be formed on the basis of loosely connected private scientific pictures of the world provided by particular subjects comprising the school instructional system. In the process the author designed large conceptual units concerning the general picture of the world, methods of cognitive development of the picture, and the place of man in the world. The pupils were given therefore an analytical tool for understanding natural phenomena, for orientation in the world and proper assessment of it. Finally it provided conditions for appearance of convictions Ч of complete and unflinching confidence in the righteousness of communist ideas, views, principles, and ideals.

 

THE ROLE OF SUBJECTIVE CRITERIA OF SUCCESS IN ACTIVITY REGULATION

V. I. Stepansky

In order to explain more completely the psychological mechanism of evaluation by a subject of results of his own actions a concept of the "subjective criterion of success" has been introduced into the level of aspiration conceptual framework. Review of literature and analysis of the author's experiments show that results which fail to reach the declared level of aspiration can be positively evaluated if the goal discrepancy

 

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does not exceed a certain pre-established value. This value qualitatively characterizes the strictlyness of the subjective criterion of success which is determined by motivational factors Ч mainly by the fear of failure. In the theoretical plane relations between the hope of success and the fear of failure, as well as relations between the level of aspiration and the subjective criterion of success are considered.

 

EMOTIONALITY AND REGULATION OF COMMUNICATORY ACTIVITY

O. P. Sannikova

An attempt has been made to find some causeЧ effect relations between individual-typological properties of emotionality and communicability. Results obtained through application of an original prolonged procedure show that activity connected with the search of individually conforming, favourable conditions for communication is determined by stable individual-typological characteristics of emotionality. It has been established that besides the traditionally studied kind of communicatory activity there exists another kind which is manifested in avoidance of wide contacts, in selective choice of partners, of the time, conditions and manner of communication. The second kind is typical of people with negative emotional disposition. The study show that stable tendency for experiencing negative emotions is associated with wider scope of deeper nuances of positive actual emotions which appear in comfortable communication as compared with domination of positive emotional disposition.

 

THE STRUCTURE OF DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNICABILITY

A. I. Shchebetenko

Experimental study of the structure of the psychodynamic communicability revealed a corresponding complex of symptoms. The complex, as a stable unity, is basically determined by EEG-indices of the lability of the nervous system and, to a lesser extent, Ч of the strength of the nervous system. There is a linear relation of an integral nature between the complex and the extraversion/introversion and the rigidity/plasticity characteristics. Emotional excitability is orthogonally related to the complex.

 

NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF EMOTIONALITY ON REPRODUCTION OF VERBAL MATERIAL

N. Ya. Batova, E. D. Khomskaya

Efficiency of reproduction of intentionally memorized "emotional" and "emotionally neutral" words has been analyzed under conditions of immediate recall and under conditions of homogenous interference. In norm and in patients with extrafrontal lesions efficiency of reproduction of "emotional" words is significantly higher as compared with "neutral" words under both experimental conditions. In patients with lesions in the frontal lobes there is no such difference in efficiency.

 

IDENTIFICATION OF ANGLES IN FLAT FIGURES AS A MEANS OF DIAGNOSIS OF SCHIZOPHRENICS

N. G. Totrova

The data has been obtained which show that decision-making required by simple perceptual tasks Ч selection of an angle corresponding to a given standard Ч is significantly less efficient in schizophrenics than in healthy subjects. Some of the phenomena observed are psychologically interpreted.

 

AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM "ALISA" AS A TOOL FOR AN EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGIST

I. V. Ermakova

Specificity of automated psychological experiments is considered. Functional capacity of the second version of the automated logical-play system "ALISA", designed for preparation and conduction of mass psychological experiments, and for statistical processing of obtained results is described. The system works in the dialogue regime and is meant to be used by experimental psychologists who may not possess the experience of dealing with computers. Some extracts from a real ALISA-based experiment with a subject are given.

 

THE UNCONSCIOUS AND THE SET

V. V. Grigolava

"The unconscious" of S. Freud and "the set"" of D. N. Uznadze are completely different notions. Uznadze's set is an explanatory theory of the behavior of animals (man included). He assumed that the work of psyche is not restricted to the sphere of consciousness. If so the psyche would oppose the rest of the living world and constitute an independent and completely closed quarter of reality Ч which excludes the issue of psyche development. It must be put down to Uznadze's credit that he not only recognized existence of psyche "beyond consciousness", but also conceptualized corresponding psychological mechanism under the name of "set".