EDUCATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL IN THE DEVELOPED SOCIALIST SOCIETY AND URGENT TASKS IN PEDAGOGICS AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
В. Т. Likhachiov
In the history of the human society there have developed six levels of interaction between psychology and pedagogics: practical-utilitarian, abstract-idealist, empirical-materialistic, anthropological, pragmatic, and dialectical-materialistic. The last of them assumes that both psychology and pedagogics are independent and interacting parts in the science of society with the subject-matter developed in accordance with the laws of social development. Typical errors which occur in studies as a result of insufficient attention to the specificity of the subject-matter and regularities of the two disciplines are discussed. At the core of them there is always substitution of the pedagogical research with the psychological one and of the psychological research with the pedagogical one. General and particular aspects in the subject-matter, laws and contradictions, as well as problems of interaction between pedagogics and psychology in both theoretical and applied research are discussed.
PSYCHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF A PRACTICAL TASK
D. N. Zavalishina
It is assumed that the psychological structure of a practical task (as compared with a theoretical, or cognitive task) can be conceptualized only as a system of tasks regarded as a unity of mono-problem and multi-problem characteristics. Psychological specificity of practical tasks is seen by the author in their content, in the manner of realization of their components, and in the relations (contradictions) between the latter; all these in their turn are determined by objective qualities of the object and of the means of corresponding practical (work) activity, by the most general experimental aims, and by the theoretical ideas of the sides participating in the experiment concerning the psychological mechanisms of development and functioning of thinking.
SPECIFICITY OF THE MENTAL IMAGERY CONTROLLING HUMAN ACTIONS UNDER CONDITIONS OF DISTORTED AFFERENTATION
N. D. Zavalova, V. А. Ponomarienko
Structure and content of the mental imagery which functions as a pilot's inner mechanism of control over his cockpit activity are considered.
Results of flight and ground tests employing a lazer-equipped landing device — which made it possible to reveal specific features of the imagery developing under the conditions in a pilot's mind as compared with that in the mind of a layman — are presented. For a pilot the flight represents a visual (perceivable) picture. A pilot, both in air and on land, perceives (and imagines) the earth as static and the aircraft — as something which moves and changes its position relative to it. Since when in the air (even in the visually controlled one) a pilot receives signals which may distort the image of the flight, he has to form and permanently and consciously maintain the correct perceived image of the flight.
CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF CONTEMPORARY SOCIOBIOLOGY (ON THE ROLE OF HEREDITORY PRE-CONDITIONS IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF A MAN)
A. Z. Kukarkin
Some aspects of the contemporary sociobiology as it has been developing abroad, and particularly those crucial for the problem of the role of hereditory pre-conditions in man's psychological development — are critically analyzed. Relationship between genetical and psychological principles to be used in studies of a man's ontogenesis, as well as relative role of such intermediaries between the genotype and the mental phenotype as the organic growth and the intentional activity of the man as a particular personality — are discussed in the above context.
PSYCHOLOGICAL REGULARITIES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PERSONALITY, AND URGENT EDUCATIONAL TASKS
D. I. Feldstein
A qualitatively new social task set before the educators at the stage of the developed socialism is discussed. Main thrusts are to be directed at promotion of self-initiative in a growing man, at forming in him of higher social responsibility. The society-imposed system of education must overtake children's mental development and guide it. It is important therefore to use in the organization of such "overtaking education" the data from psychology concerning development of the personality in ontogenesis. Review of a number of regularities discovered by psychologists and of possible ways of using them for particular educational aims is provided.
PSYCHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE MODE OF PLANNING IN YOUNGER SCHOOL-CHILDREN
Ye. I. Isaev
A number of researchers point that thinking may perform the function of organization of forthcoming actions. However experimental studies of the function rather often assume that children may act without any resort to the externally stated terms of the problem. In the experiment described thinking's planning function has been studied in the context of preliminary analysis of the terms. Basic lines of solving the experimental problems corresponding to individual peculiarities in establishing spatial-temporal relations between the elements of conditions have been revealed. Use of auxiliary means which help the children to comprehend their own operations and ways of reorganization of the problem is shown to be of special importance. The tendency to look for such means is an indicator of the theoretical mode of performing under the conditions created in the experiment.
EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL INTERESTS IN SCHOOLCHILDREN WITH DIFFERENT MANIFESTATIONS OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES
D. P. Baram
Sixty nine schoolchildren were distributed along the "verbal — figurative" continuum depending on peculiarities of their cognitive style. Then educational and vocational interests in extreme groups (19 subjects in each) were revealed. It was found out that children with basically "verbal" cognitive processes were more interested in physical culture and labour training, in geography, biology, history, Russian and English lessons, and in the signonomic professions. The "figurative" group showed more interest to the socionomic and artonomic professions.
DEVELOPMENT OF QUESTIONS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
The aim of the study was to reveal basic trends in appearance of questions in children, and to establish corresponding factors. Questions were regarded, on the one hand, as a form of speech and, on the other hand, as a form of thinking and cognition of the world. Two categories of questions — cognitive and social-communicative have been particularly analyzed in relation to their adress (an age-mate or a grown-up) and the frequency of occurence.
GROUP STRESS-EMOTIONAL PSYCHOTHERAPY IN CORRECTION OF MENTAL STATES IN STUTTERERS
Yu. B. Nekrasova
The process of stress-emotional psychotherapy regarded as the basic element in a system of logotherapeutic work in a group has been analyzed. Role of the "session" in development of specific mental states which precede "the introduction into speech" is particularly shown.
A REAL-LIFE PROCEDURE FOR THE STUDY OF MORAL CONVICTIONS IN SCHOOLCHILDREN
G. M. Sharikova
A real-life experiment has been performed with the view to establish how compositions written by children during literature lessons can be used as means of purposeful development in them of moral convictions. An original procedure has been worked out for this aim equipped with a number of indices helpful for the assessment of corresponding changes in the personality of children. It has been shown that when properly controlled the moral convictions can be fully acquired under such conditions.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERFECT MUSICAL EAR IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN
S. G. Grebelnik
The perfect musical ear as a sensory-mnemic ability can be purposefully developed in a person. To prove this thesis an original procedure based on selection of particular musical material has been developed. The essence of the method consists in perception, memorization and recognition of pitch standards.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN A TEACHER AND AN ADOLESCENT
N. I. Gutkina
The peculiarities of adolescence which impede communication between adults and adolescents and which therefore complicate the educational process are considered (and in particular the following: rather difficult proceeding of the "adolescence crisis", "feeling of adulthood" which appears in the period and may manifest itself in the "external adulthood", and also the phenomenon of barriers between meanings). Some recommendations are provided concerning prevention and overcoming of psychological conflicts between teachers and pupils.
PECULIARITIES OF INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP PROBLEM-SOLVING UNDER CONDITIONS OF COMMON ACTIVITY
N. P. Shcherbo
The experimental study has revealed that the manner of thinking under conditions of group (diadic) problem-solving depends on the correlation of intellectual, capacities of the partners, on the modality of their interassessments, on their situational activity and role positions. Two extreme types of relations in the dyad can be established: common (shared) and individual solving. The first is typical of intellectually active partners and occurs when inter-personal emotional assessments are positive. The second develops when partners are intellectually passive while both explicit and implicit emotional attitudes between them are negative.
ABSOLUTE AUDITORY SENSITIVITY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STRENGTH OF SUPRALIMINAL STIMULI
T. A. Ratanova
Individual difference in absolute auditory sensitivity has been studied in relation to the "strength — weakness" parameter of the nervous system as measured by V.D. Nebylitsyn's motor procedure, it is shown that both "weak" and "strong" subjects may possess high as well as low absolute auditory sensitivity, although there is tendency for higher absolute sensitivity in the weak group. A model is suggested which represents the growth of the nervous excitement in the range of stimuli from the individual absolute threshold up to 100 db in persons with weak and strong nervous system.
ROLE OF TRAINING IN AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION
Yu. A. Indlin
It has been shown that feed-back provided training increases efficiency of discrimination because it enables the subject to choose a subjectively dominant cue related to the varied parameter of the stimulus. Corresponding vocalization and engagement of the muscular memory weaken the influence of the sensory memory, and result in decreased variance of the response criterion.
A MONOLOGIC INTERVIEW METHOD
N. I. Sardzhveladze
A method is suggested for the study of attitudes of a given person to other people and to oneself. The method (assumed projective by the author) is based on a rather new methodological paradigm: the person studied both puts forward questions concerning other people and himself and answers them by himself. Ways of processing corresponding data are described at some length.
A PROCEDURE FOR MEASURING THE VALUE-ORIENTATIONAL COHESION OF A SMALL GROUP
V. M. Tsekhnovicher
The author critically reviews procedures currently used for estimation of unity between members of small groups in relation to ethical values (opinions, attitudes, etc.). In conclusion a new procedure is suggested which is largely devoid of the shortcomings characteristic of the above described methods.
LITERAL-IDEOGRAPHIC SCRIPT FOR RAPID READING
N. K. Sosnin
The speed with which people read printed texts is a significant factor in the era of the scientific-technical progress. Form of printed letters in conventional scripts and the manner of distribution of letters within printed words are basic causes of slow reading. The system suggested by the author ("Literal-ideographic script for reading printed texts") simplifies to the limit both the graphical design of the contemporary alphabet and the method of reading corresponding printed texts, and provides real basis for multiple increase in the speed of reading.
DESCRIPTION OF THE HUMAN FACE IN BELLES-LETTRES AS A PROBLEM OF MAN-BY-MAN PERCEPTION
Ye. F. Bazhin, N. A. Ganina, T. V. Korneva
Content-analysis used for the study of a number of extracts from works of 20 Russian and Soviet writers has made it possible to reveal basic regularities in verbal description of human faces. Lexical-semantical analysis allows one to distinguish terms used for description of emotional states, and for physical description as such. Individual style and differences between the writers in the choice and number of elements of description have been established. Chances of using the method of content-analysis of pieces of literature in a wider context of studying general problems of social perception and communication are discussed in some detail.
GENERAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL VIEWS OF M.Ya. BASOV AND THEIR IMPORTANCE FOR EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
N. Ya. Menchinskaya
Psychological views of M.Ya. Basov and their importance for educational psychology have been considered in commemoration of publishing in 1923 of his book "Will as subject-matter of functional psychology".