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of #5 2023





Social imagination as a psychological phenomenon

Nestik T.A.


The article analyzes psychological phenomenology, prerequisites and mechanisms of social imagination, the structure of which includes the readiness of the individual and group to relate their lives to the sociohistorical context, as well as to imagine and analyze alternative options for social interaction in the past and future. Sociological and psychological interpretations of this phenomenon are considered. The results of a series of empirical studies (N = 1950; N = 775; N = 2183) are presented, which made it possible to identify the socio-psychological prerequisites for scenario thinking, i.e. orientation towards the generation and analysis of alternative options for the collective future, as well as the cognitive closure in representations about it, namely the belief in its predetermination and lack of alternatives. A relationship was found between the perceived diversity of the possible futures of Russia and social complexity, interest in the long-term future, the value of continuous development, perceived collective political self-efficacy, as well as anxiety about the future of Russia and the frequency of discussion of political topics. It is shown that the perceived lack of alternatives in representations about the collective future is related with the experience of a threat, the need for cognitive closure, fatalistic attitudes, social cynicism and intolerance towards other social groups. Methods for developing social imagination in groups and organizations are proposed, which help to imagine alternative versions of the past and future, place one’s biography and career in the context of corporate and national history, and also look at one’s activities through the eyes of representatives of other social groups. Promising directions for further research in this area are outlined.

Keywords: social imagination, scenarios for the future of Russia, social complexity, need for cognitive closure.


Holonomic perspective of the development of integral individuality

Dorfman L.Ya.


The task of further development of the theory of integral individuality of V.S. Merlin has been set in a methodological key and in line with the natural science approach. The solution to this problem is revealed by turning to other theories. Then the theory of V.S. Merlin expands and receives additional resources. Its basis has cross-theoretical perspectives. A simple option involves the unification and integration of two theories, when the ideas of one theory transfers and reproduces in another theory. Some formal designations suggest donor theory, basic hybrid theory, modification, hybrid effects. Basic assumptions of the theory of integral individuality and the theory of holonomy set forth. The claim is the problem of the relationship between parts and the whole is central to the further development of the theory of integral individuality at the present stage. In this regard, some ideas of the holon transfer to integral individuality. The holon gives rise as a donor theory, and the theory of integral individuality as a hybrid that appears as a result of its modification when the ideas of the holon transfer to it. The holon provides a new and additional understanding of the structure of integral individuality, and holonomic determination allows expand and deepen ideas about integral individuality. Its view as a hybrid changes in several ways. The integral individuality as a holon involves at least three levels. The individual properties of each level have dual features and relationships. Individual properties at any one level (for example, temperament features) are a part in relation to the individual properties of a higher level (for example, personality traits) and a whole in relation to the individual properties of a lower level (for example, features of the nervous system). There are no individual properties as just parts. Also, individual properties do not exist as a just whole. They are both the whole and the parts at the same time. Individual properties as part and whole are complementary, relational and multidimensional.

Key words: theory of integral individuality, theory of holonomy, cross-theoretical integration, donor theory, hybrid theory, hybridization and hybrid effects, whole and partheory of integral individuality, theory of holonomy, cross-theoretical integration, donor theory, hybrid theory, hybridization and hybrid effects, whole and part.


The relationship of the music lessons and executive functions in preschoolers aged 5–6

Bayanova L.F., Dolgikh A.G., Nechaeva D.M.


 The results of a study of the relationship between the development of executive functions and the attendance of additional music classes by preschoolers are presented. Subtests of the NEPSY-II diagnostic complex were used to assess the level of development of working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control. The sample of this study consisted of 57 children aged five to six years (M = 76 months, SD = 5.47), of which 16 boys (28 %) and 41 girls (72 %), 21 children were engaged in music at a children’s music school or a children’s art school in Moscow. Data on preschool children’s attendance at music classes were taken from questionnaires, which were filled out by parents. The experimental group consisted of children who regularly attended music classes, the control group consisted of those who did not attend them. An additional control group consisted of preschoolers who regularly attend sports, but do not attend music classes. As a result of comparing averages using the Mann–Whitney U-test, significant differences were found between children who attend and do not attend music classes. It turned out that preschoolers who regularly practice music have a higher level of development of auditory working memory and cognitive flexibility. The results obtained confirm the value of music lessons for the development of certain components of the executive functions of preschoolers. At the same time, no differences were found between preschoolers who attend (1) music and (2) sports, which may indicate a similarity in the contribution of these types of activities to the cognitive development of children.

Key words: preschool education, preschool age, executive functions, audio-verbal working memory, cognitive flexibility, music.


Long-term orientation as a predictor of psychological well-being

Dekhtiarenko A.A., Shliagina E.I.


The research is devoted to the study of the relationship between the components of psychological health and the scales of long-term orientation of personality. The topicality of the study is explained by the increasing instability and uncertainty of the modern world, to which people need to adapt. We consider personal resources, in this case, long-term orientation of personality, as mechanisms of preadaptation and adaptation. The sample consisted of 288 people (149 students from 17 to 23 years old and 139 young professionals aged 28–35 years old) who completed 2online questionnaires: MHC-SF by C. Keyes and Long-Term Orientation by T.A. Nestik. It was revealed as a result of intergroup comparison that students are more socially well-off, and the long-term orientation of personality is more expressed in the group of young specialists. It was revealed as a result of regression and mediator analysis that motivational and value components of long-term orientation of personality are the predictors of psychological well-being in both groups: in the group of students - the value of tradition, in the group of young professionals - the value of continuous self-development. The connection between the value of tradition and psychological well-being in students is mediated by two scales of long-term orientation: optimism about the long-term future and long-term planning and goal setting. The connection of the value of continuous self-development with psychological well-being is mediated by the long-term orientation scale: long-term orientation and goal setting, in the group of young professionals.

Key words: psychological well-being, long-term orientation, mediation analysis.


Scientific school of A.A. Bodalev

Karpova N. L., Petrova E.A.


Based on a review of scientific works and biographical materials, the stages of professional life and the formation of the scientific school of A.A. Bodalev “Psychology of communication”. From the standpoint of understanding the “school”: as an institution that shapes future researchers; a scientific team developing, under the leadership of the leader, his research program; a certain direction in science, – shows the contribution of the school of A.A. Bodalev in the formation of domestic centers for the study of the psychology of communication in theory and practice and its development as an independent area of psychological science. Three main periods in the development of the scientific school were identified: 1) Leningrad – the beginning of research into people’s cognition of each other by a group of employees of the Leningrad State University under the leadership of A.A. Bodalev, defense of a doctoral and a series of master’s theses on phenomenology, the cognitive and emotional side of communication and understanding of a person’s own personality. 2) The first Moscow period – the creation in Moscow of the country’s first laboratory for social perception and several centers for the study of the psychology of communication in different cities of the country; dissertations were defended on gender and age patterns of people’s perception and understanding of each other, on various attitudes, factors, personal characteristics of the subjects of communication; the opening of the first psychological service in the country to help the population and the systematic holding of All-Union conferences and seminars on the problems of the psychology of communication. 3) The second Moscow period – studies of socio-perceptual phenomena and characteristics in different age and social groups, analysis of the psychological mechanisms of communication (trust, empathy, reflection, identification, etc.), identification of psychological difficulties among professionals and with various health disorders, as well as study of the features of communication of civil servants. The resumption of conferences on the problems of the psychology of communication and the creation of the Encyclopedic Dictionary “Psychology of Communication”. Based on the analysis of interviews and memoirs of A.A. Bodalev presents his psychological portrait as the founder and leader of the school of communication psychology and one of the founders of Russian acmeology.

Key words: A.A. Bodalev, school, psychology of communication, personality and communication, socio-perceptual approach, psychology of communication.


Pedagogical psychology for teachers (on the 100th anniversary of the birth of N.F. Talyzina)

Stepanova M.A.


These materials are dedicated to the 100th anniversary of N.F. Talyzina (1923–2018), a well-known Russian psychologist, author of the activity theory of teaching based on the theory of step–by-step formation of mental actions and concepts by P.Ya. Galperin. N.F. Talyzina’s research not only marked the beginning of a new direction of scientific research in the field of psychological aspects of school education, but also contributed to the creation of practice-oriented recommendations for teachers based on them. She is the author of books and articles, the writing style of which makes them accessible to a wide range of interested readers: psychologists and educators, theorists and practitioners, venerable scientists and novice specialists. In her oral and written speeches, N.F. Talyzina raised issues related to various aspects of school education, which, despite the changes observed in modern education, do not lose their relevance, only those specific conditions in which they have to be solved change. Talyzina has trained more than one generation of psychologists and educators, and she remains a Teacher for all living specialists engaged in developing issues of the content and forms of school education. The genre of correspondence interviews chosen by the author allows, based on the publications of N.F. Talyzina, to get answers to many of them “first-hand”.

Key words: activity theory of N.F. Talyzina’s teaching, psychology and pedagogy, school education, knowledge, scientific concepts, guided assimilation of concepts, school difficulties and their prevention.


Representation of K.D. Ushinsky’s psychological ideas in the history of Russian psychology (based on publications of the late 19th – early 20th centuries)

Mazilov V.A., Kostrigin A.A.


The article is devoted to the 200th anniversary of the outstanding Russian educator K.D. Ushinsky (1823– 1871). The aim is to study the representation of his scientific contribution in scientific and journalistic literature of the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The characteristics of the representational approach in the history of psychology and the analysis of historiography of historical periods, scientific directions, problems, creativity of personalities are described. The authors’ judgments about the psychological and psychological-pedagogical ideas of K.D. Ushinsky are presented. It is noted that the directions of analysis of the scientist’s contribution to psychology were the following: contribution to psychology in general (his analysis of the philosophical-psychological foundations of pedagogics and teaching, study of the problems of empirical psychology, consideration of the traits of mental activity), pedagogical and child psychology (his development of psychological orientation of pedagogical anthropology, designation of the directions of mental and personal development of children, description of the differences in the psyche of children and adults), the foundations of psychological training of teachers. It is shown that in historical-scientific publications K.D. Ushinsky is represented mainly from the pedagogical and partly psychological points of view. This is explained by the fact that most of the authors were educators, they were oriented to educational and practical issues. K.D. Ushinsky’s contribution to psychology was noted only in the texts, but not in the titles of publications. It is concluded that at the turn of the 19th – 20th centuries K.D. Ushinsky only indirectly began to be recognized as a psychologist. Besides, there was a socio-historical factor of interest to the work of the famous educator: some manifestations of negative attitude to him in 1880–1890s on the part of the Ministry of Public Education, the legacy of his participation in educational reforms, mention of his name in connection with the requests of the Russian society for changes at the end of the 19th century. Prospects for further historiographical analysis of K.D. Ushinsky’s work are shown.

Key words: history of psychology, K.D. Ushinsky, representation, personalia, scientific contribution, philosophical psychology, educational psychology.


Therapeutic projection: the image of information as a way of influencing the client’s self-image

Yanshin P.V.


In many contemporary psychotherapeutic techniques (such as gestalt therapy, NLP, and simoron), the term “integration” is used to explain the achieved effect. However, in most cases of what is referred to as integration, there exists a therapeutic projection, where the positive effect is attained through influencing the imaginative image, leading to positive changes in one’s self-image. Through the example of 20 participants of both genders involved in psychotherapeutic groups, it is evidenced using a semantic differential focusing on external aspects of imaginative images that in all examined cases, what is observed is not integration or catharsis, but transmutation of negative self-relation into a positive one. Drawing from highly significant correlations of semantic distances within the factor space, it is argued that even before the intervention, the self-image and the image influenced by the intervention were semantically synonymous (integrated), with the degree of their initial closeness in the semantic space positively correlating with the effectiveness of the therapeutic intervention. The value of the term “integration” in understanding the psychological mechanisms of psychotherapeutic intervention through so-called integrative techniques is brought into question, despite acknowledging the practical utility of the term.

Key words: psychotherapy, integration, integrative techniques, therapeutic projection, representation of image, self-relation, self-acceptance, semantic differential, semantic distances, metaphorical self-image.


The influence of an implicit skill on the example of associative tasks with a selection of letters

Medyntsev A.A., Vlasova A.S., Kosolapova D.V., Shipilova E.S.


An experimental study of the mechanism of influence of an implicitly formed skill on the process of solving linguistic problems has been carried out. During the main series of the experiment, the subjects solved associative problems developed for the study with the selection of letters. The study participants were divided into two groups: the prepared group and the control group. The members of the prepared group solved additional tasks with an implicit pattern before the main series. An implicit pattern was a certain spatial arrangement of the task elements, which was not reported to the test subjects. The members of the control group did not solve anything before these series. In the main experimental series, one part of the tasks had a similar implicit pattern in its structure (correct tasks), and the other part did not have such a pattern (incorrect tasks). It was expected that the implicit pattern learned by the members of the prepared group would have an impact on the process of solving the correct tasks in the main series, namely: it would affect the speed of solving these tasks and the effectiveness of their solution, while the number of solved correct tasks would be greater for the members of the prepared group compared with the control group, and the speed of solving the correct tasks would be higher in the members of the prepared group. The results obtained partially confirmed the hy-pothesis put forward. The members of the prepared group solved the correct tasks faster compared to the members of the control group. However, there were no differences in the number of completed tasks between the groups. It is established that an implicitly acquired skill has an impact on the process of solving linguistic problems. As a possible mechanism of such influence, the possible interference of the formed implicit skill with the phenomenon of «mechanization of thinking», which takes place in solving problems, is discussed.

Keywords: implicit learning, linguistic task, mechanization of thinking.


Correction of the subject’s self-attitude via feedback regarding his personal resources

Danilenko O.I., Bykhovskaya A.V.


Changes in the individual’s self-attitude were revealed after the intervention as interactive feedback regarding subject’s psychological characteristics, considered as resources for successfully coping with difficult situations. The sample consisted of 97 people from 24 to 56 years old, of which 62 % were women, 38 % were men. Questionnaires used: The technique of research of the self-attitude by S.R. Pantileev, V.V. Stolin; Ways of Coping Questionnaire by R. Lazarus (adapted by L.I. Wasserman et al.); Hardiness Survey by S. Maddi (adapted by D.A. Leontiev and E.I. Rasskazova); Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale by R. Schwarzer, M. Jerusalem (adaptation by V.Â. Romek); Values in Action Inventory of Strengths by K. Peterson and M. Seligman (adapted by A.A. Stavtsev, A.A. Rean, R.G. Kuzmin); SAN (Well-being. Activity. Mood) by V.A. Doskin et al. Statistical processing: correlation, factor, regression analysis, Wilcoxon T-test. The study took place in three stages. The first was to identify psychological characteristics relevant for conducting interventions. Characteristics that make a positive contribution to self-attitude have been identified: hardiness, self-efficacy, a range of personality strengths and coping strategies. At the second stage, the formative experiment method was used. Participants were randomly assigned to groups in which they would subsequently (1) did not receive feedback, (2) received only test results, (3) received corrective feedback. In the last – experimental – group, the identified characteristics were considered together with the participant as resources for successful coping with difficult situations experienced. At the third stage, after two to three weeks after the feedback was given, self-attitude was measured again all groups. Only in the experimental group were revealed (1) positive changes in self-attitudes (indicators of self-worth (p = 0.015) and self-confidence increased (p = 0.018)), and also (2) the positive situational impact of the intervention: growth in activity (p = 0.01) and improvement in subject’s mood (p = 0.02). The survey showed that participants of the experimental group find the feedback useful and intend to use received information.

Key words: self-attitude, coping resources, interactive feedback, psychological intervention, formative experiment.


Preliminary psychometric properties of the Item Reduced Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire

Kornienko D.S., Rudnova N.A.


When studying the phenomenon of parental relationship, researchers usually rely on the categories of proximity/remoteness, autonomy/control, and the sequence of implementation of educational influences. The variety of methods for diagnosing parental attitudes allows you to measure many parameters, but there are problems with the psychometric characteristics of questionnaires and organizational difficulties. One of the approaches trying to combine the various characteristics of the parental relationship is a comprehensive approach, which identifies three characteristics as the main parameters of the parental relationship: child care, structuring and control of the child’s life. To diagnose these characteristics, E. Sleddens et al. developed a questionnaire. The article presents the results of a pilot assessment and analysis of preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Russian-language version of the Short Questionnaire of generalized characteristics of parental relationship (Item-reduced Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire). The sample consisted of 504 mothers of preschoolers who were offered the Russian-language version of the questionnaire, as well as the Alabama Questionnaire of Parenting Practices (form for preschoolers – APQ-PR), the Parental Attitude Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Short Questionnaire of the Big Five. The study involved 504 mothers of preschoolers who completed the Russian version of the questionnaire, as well as the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire – Preschool Revision (APQ-PR), the Parental Attitudes Questionnaire (PAQ), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed a low suitability of the structure of the original questionnaire. The allocation of the structure based on exploratory factor analysis led to an even greater reduction in the points of the questionnaire, which amounted to three scales: care, structure and control, corresponding to the original questionnaire. The reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) of the obtained scales ranges from 0.62 to 0.75. The obtained scales are positively related to the scales of other questionnaires measuring parental attitude (for example, positive parenting, engagement, symbiosis), correlations of indicators of the scales of care and structure with personality traits (benevolence, consciousness, emotional stability) were also found. In general, the questionnaire turned out to have good psychometric indicators, however, due to a significant decrease in points and, accordingly, some narrowing of the information content of the obtained scales of parental attitude, at the moment the adapted questionnaire can only be used for research purposes, and in the future additional research is necessary for its application.

Key words: parental attitude, questionnaire, adaptation, psychometrics, structure.



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